the throw is just the measurement of degrees that a control surface (aileron, elevator, rudder) travels up, down, and side to side (only for rudder)
If you would like to know suggested throws for all of the different types of flying just ask back here and I myself, and I'm sure many other people will be happy to help
But it really does depend on many different factors, the main one just being the plane itself
BTW, that is a very nice TX
somebody who knows will chime in
Great Job & I thank you for broadening my horizon....get it?....horizon?....the airplane guage?...ahhhh fergit it...
AC = Alternate Current (This type of charger receives it's power by plugging it into a wall outlet.)
Fast charger = Usually charges batteries in increments of 15 minutes.
Balancer = Balances each cell in LiPo (Lithium Polymer) batteries to an equal number of volts.
Deans = A type of connector that is commonly used on batteries and ESC's.
Bananna plug = Another type of connector that is commonly used on DC chargers.
A slow charger is one that typically charges a battery over a period of 10 hours or more. This would be referred to as 1/10C charging.
A fast charger is one that typically charges a battery in 1 hour or less. This would be a 1C charge rate.
( I guess if it charges somewhere between those it would be considered a half fast charger. )
Not all battery packs can be charged at a 1C rate. Some can be charged at much higher rates.
The safe charge rate is a function of the battery, not the charger.
Many NiCds can be charged at 2C rates and NiCd Sub C or larger can often be charged at 3C rates.
Most Lipos must be charged at 1C rate. However some new lipo chargers have settings that will allow them to charge certain lipos up to a 3C rate.
Your charger must match your battery type. Don't charge Lipos with a NiCd/NiMh charger or very bad things can happen.
AMPS vs. VOLTS vs. C
By Ed Anderson
aeajr on the forums
This brief discussion is intended to clear up a few terms and concepts
around electricity as it applies to electric airplanes.
Think of electricity like water. Volts = pressure Amps = flow
Volts is like pounds per square inch, psi. Says nothing about how much
water is flowing, just how hard it is being pushed. You can have 100 psi
with zero water flow.
Amps is flow, like gallons per hour. You can have flow at low pressure and
you can have flow at high pressure.
Amp hours is how much flow can be sustained for how long. It is used as a
way of measuring how much electricity is in the battery. Like how many
gallons of gas in your tank. It is a capacity number. Says nothing about
flow or pressure, it is about capacity.
Amps and mili amps? We are just moving the decimal point around.
1 amp (short for ampere) = 1000 miliamps (mili means 1/1000 amps)
So a 7 cell NIMH or NICD pack provides 8.4V (pressure).
The motor will draw electricity from the pack at a certain flow rate, or
If you have a have a 650 mili amp hour pack, it can deliver a flow of .650
amps (650 miliamps) for one hour. If you draw it out faster, it
doesn't last as long. So your motor might pull 6.5 amps for 1/10 of an
hour, or about 6 minutes.
A 1100 mah pack has double the capacity of the 650 mah pack, so it should
last "about" twice as long when discharging at the same rate.
What is C in relation to batteries?
C ratings are simply a way of talking about charge and discharge rates for
1C, = 1 time the rated mah capacity of the battery. So if you charge your
650 mah pack at 1C, you charge it a 650 miliamps, or .650 amps.
1C on a 1100 pack would be 1.1 amps.
2 C on your 1100 pack would be 2.2 amps
Motor batteries are often rated in Discharge C and charge C.
So a 1100 mah pack (1.1 amp hour) might be rated for 10C discharge, so you
can pull 11 amps ( flow ) without damaging the battery.
Then it might be rated at 2C charge rate (flow), so you charge it at 2.2
amps (2200 mah)
How did I do? Things clearing up?
If you have a 500 mah pack - any kind - and it is rated at 16C that means it
can deliver 8 amps.
If you have a 1000 mah pack - any kind - and it is rated at 8C that means it
can deliver 8 amps.
If you have a 1000 mah pack - any kind - and it is rated at 12C that means
it can deliver 12 amps
If you have a 1500 mah pack - any kind - and it is rate at 8C that means it
can deliver 12 amps
If you have a 1500 mah pack - any kind - and it is rated at 20 C that means
it can deliver 30 amps.
If you have a 3000 mah pack - any kind - and it is rated at 10 C that means
it can deliver 30 amps.
So, if you need 12 amps you can use a pack with a higher C rating or a pack
with a higher mah rating to get to needed amp delivery level.
One last point. Motor batteries vs. receiver batteries
Some batteries can sustain high discharge rates. Others can not.
Those used as transmitter/receiver packs typically are made for low flow/amp
rates while those made for motor packs can sustain higher rates.
Having a 600 mah pack does not tell you if it is a motor pack that can put
out 6 amps, or if it is a transmitter/receiver pack that would be damaged if
you tried to pull power at 6 amps. It is enough to say that they are
Clearly a motor pack could be used for a transmitter/receiver job, but a
transmitter/receiver pack should not generally be used as a motor pack.
It is best to size your battery packs so they run somewhat below their
maximum C rating. You will stress them less and they will last longer. For
example, if your motor needs a pack that can deliver 10 amps, getting a 1000
mah pack that is rated for 10C ( 10 amps ) will meet the spec, but it is
running at its limit. A 15 C rated 1000 mah pack would be better, or
perhaps a 1300 mah 10 C pack. In either of these cases, the pack will be
less stressed and should handle the load much better over the long term.
Sizing Electric Power Systems -
Lithium Balancers and Balancing Chargers
New Electric Flyer FAQs
A series of posts on electric power system basics
MotoCalc will tell you everything you need to know: Amps, Volts, Watts, RPM,
Thrust, Rate of Climb, and much more! It is a popular tool for predicting
the proper motor, prop, battery pack for electric planes.
The Great Electric Motor Test
Electric Motors Described
A hard LVC would be when the motor just suddenly cuts off.
A soft LVC would either slow the motor so the pilot will recognize it or may pulse the motor. A total cut off may follow soon after.
You may find this a useful resource:
Understanding the BEC/LVC Features of your ESC