beginner dictionary. - Page 10 - RC Groups
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May 01, 2008, 05:29 PM
Airforce Nut
No Limits's Avatar
Originally Posted by nbl_2105
Guys what are throws? Is that the same as mixing where you program certain % of controls into a switch on a computer? How useful are they? I plan on getting a Dx6i and would like to know. thanks.
throws are very important, they depend on what kind of flying you plan on doing

the throw is just the measurement of degrees that a control surface (aileron, elevator, rudder) travels up, down, and side to side (only for rudder)

If you would like to know suggested throws for all of the different types of flying just ask back here and I myself, and I'm sure many other people will be happy to help

But it really does depend on many different factors, the main one just being the plane itself

BTW, that is a very nice TX

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May 01, 2008, 05:30 PM
Airforce Nut
No Limits's Avatar
Originally Posted by Thews
I think a little info on Li-Po vs A123 batteries could be helpful here. I got a cell balancer the other day, and evidently its for A123 batteries didnt know these were different from LiPo's

I would add it, but I still am not too clear on the difference.
hmmmm, I've always known the A123 to be a motor

somebody who knows will chime in

Jun 15, 2008, 01:05 PM
new pic, same plane....
sketchanderase's Avatar
thanx cj on the pnp info
Jun 15, 2008, 09:41 PM
Airforce Nut
No Limits's Avatar
no prob

Jun 23, 2008, 03:40 AM
Registered User
Great help,thanks
Jun 23, 2008, 10:27 AM
uh oh...
ian_ryeng's Avatar
Perhaps someone would like to explain the difference between hard and soft lvc?

Also, is servo control lost with either (i believe it is not with soft but not sure about hard) since i dont really want to test if someone knows...

Jun 30, 2008, 11:13 AM
Registered User
Zoobag's Avatar


Originally Posted by new flyer
if any newbies don't understand a term used on rcg or in any flight situation post the term here and i will find and post what it is or how it works ect i hope this will keep the non needed info out of this thread to make it easier to find what you need.

not sure if this will help any of you but i know that when i first started flying i had a heck of a time just figuring out what rx and tx meant. and what an esc was and stuff like that. i am hopping that people will see this and post anything that i forgot(i am sure there are lots) so that if a beginner doesn't understand what somthing means they can come to this thread and look it up with a search. i am not sure if this has already been done. if it has then it should be made a sticky cause i sure a heck couldn't find it when i neede an answer. i am hoping in my spare time to draw up diagrams of how different set-ups go so if a newby can't figure out where to plug what into what it will be here.well enough talkin here is the start. i will post diagrams later and if i think of somthin i miss i will post it to.hope this helps somone.

servo-recieves signal from the reciever and controls anything that you can hook a control rod to.

reciever-(aka rx)- recieves the signal from the transmitter.

transmitter-(aka tx)- broadcast a signal through the air according to wich way you push the sticks or wich way you flip a switch

lipo-(li-po)(lithium polymer) new very small very light weight batteries(more dangerous than nicad or ni-mh-may catch fire if cracked or bent or charged on wrong setting.

nicad-(nickel-cadmium) heavy batteries that can take some abuse and still be okay to use.

ni-mh-(nickel metal hydride) lighter than nicad batteries but about the same toughness.

esc-(electronic speed controller) recives a signal from the rx and controls the speed of the motor.

bec-(battery eliminator cuircut) some recivers require a seperate battery pack to control the servos and esc and 1 to control the motor. a bec gets rid of this problem. a bec takes a singal battery and sort of splits the electric into 2 so it can power the motor and rx using only 1 battery.

brushless motor- a motor that has no brushes and relies on a special esc to switch current on and off to certain coils in the motor to make it run without and contacts needed

outrunner-outrunners are brushless motors where th casing spins and the coils of wire are stationary.

inrunner- innrrunners are brushless motors that look like normal brushed motor but on the inside the center is a magnet and the case has coils on it so that it needs no brushes.

brushed motor- a brushed motor has magnets on the casing inside. and the coils are in the center. the brushes conduct electric to a commutator. the commutator has little plates corisponding to each coil. when electric goes throught one of the coils it becomes a magnet and turns to line up with the magnets in the casing. when it turns that coils plates slip from under the brushes and the next pair line up and that coil becomes a magnet. ect. ect. and so now it is spinning.

edf-aka(electric ducted fan) it is a circular housing with a motor in the center that spins a multibladed prop called the fan. used in many jet type planes.

gb-(aka gear box) Main purpose of the gearbox is to spin the prop slower than the motor's effective rpms which provides less speed but more torque.
The ratio of # of teeth on the pinion to the teeth on the spur determine the gear ratio.
Ie 10:66 would be 1:6.6 gear ratio.

Ailerons-Hinged control surfaces located on the trailing edge of the wing, one on each side, which provide control of the airplane about the roll axis. The control direction is often confusing to first time modelers. For a right roll or turn, the right hand aileron is moved upward and the left hand aileron downward, and vice versa for a left roll or turn.

Ailevators-Twin elevator servos plugged into separate channels used to control elevator with the option to also have the 2 elevator servos act as ailerons in conjunction with the primary ailerons.

Airfoil-The shape of the wing when looking at its profile. Usually a raindrop type shape.
For helis: The rotor disk is the effective wing, and airfoil refers to the shape of the blades.

Area-The number of square inches (or feet) of the wing. It's the wingspan multiplied by the wing's chord. The area of a tapered wing is the wingspan multiplied by the average chord.

Buddy Box-Two similar transmitters that are wired together with a "trainer cord." This is most useful when learning to fly—it's the same as having dual controls. The instructor can take control by using the "trainer switch" on his transmitter.

Flaperons-The movement of two aileron servos, both in the same direction at the same time, acting as flaps.

Flaps-Hinged control surface located at the trailing edge of the wing inboard of the ailerons. The flaps are lowered to produce more aerodynamic lift from the wing, allowing a slower takeoff and landing speed. Flaps are often found on scale models, but usually not on basic trainers.

lvc(low voltage cut off) once the device reaches a set low voltage it will shut off power to the motor so the batteries do not discharge to low

DVM (digital voltmeter) uses a digital readout to show voltage.


dehidral-amount of v shape in the wing

slimer-what rcers call gas planes

mixing-see post 13 for very good explanation (to much to copy)

FFF-FFF has 2 meanings

(1)-in the rc world one is fanfold foam it is a cheap foam that can be bought at lows or a similar store and is good for building planes.

(2)-fast forward flight usually used when talkning about helicopters.

kv-RPM (in K's or thousands) per volt. Measure of electric motor output.

estimating motor needs-
Watts = Volts X Amps
50 watts per pound = scale flight
75 watts per pound = mild to moderate aerobatics
100 watts per pound = agressive aerobatics
150 watts per pound = 3D flight

auw-All up weight. The flying weight of the plane with battery and everything.

wot-Wide Open Throttle

packaging terms
RTF-ready to fly
RR-reciever ready
ARF-almost ready to fly
ARC-almost ready to cover
KIT-collection of pieces
laser cut- pieces cut by a computer controlled laser
die cut-pieces cut with a die using pressure and a shaped blade


bump-used to get a post back to the top of the list

LHS-local hobby shop

pushrod-the rod that connects the servo to a control surface

crystal-the little square silver thing in the reciever and transmitter. it pretty much set the channel that the rx and tx work on. they must be the same channel for the rx to work with the tx.

prop saver-a prop saver is a device that holds the prop in place usually with rubber bands so that in a crash the prop can flex or bend from the shaft.


ROG-rise off ground with no stick input

ps if anyone has a better way to explain anything already here send me a pm and i will change the first post so that it is right on top and they don't have to look throught the thread.
PERFECT!! Absolultely just what I was talking about.
Great Job & I thank you for broadening my horizon....get it?....horizon?....the airplane guage?...ahhhh fergit it...
Seriously...thanks again,
Zoo ~~~^..^~~~
Jul 08, 2008, 09:34 AM
Registered User
You may want to do something on chargers and the various connectors. ex a snapshoot of deans, etc.
Jul 08, 2008, 02:14 PM
Airforce Nut
No Limits's Avatar
well, do you need to know what charger to get or something?

It is such a broad subject, there's so many things to answer

Jul 11, 2008, 08:54 AM
Registered User
ex slow charger dc vs ac, fast charger, the various adaptors you need to charge btty with. Ex bananna plug with dean connector. balancer and what they do.
Jul 11, 2008, 11:39 AM
Airforce Nut
No Limits's Avatar
I'm tired right now so let's just say that a fast charger charges batteries fast

Jul 11, 2008, 12:23 PM
new pic, same plane....
sketchanderase's Avatar
dc is direct current ac is all current, balancer make sure that you have the same amount of volts(?) in each cell of your lipo.
Jul 11, 2008, 12:58 PM
BD Flyer's Avatar
Originally Posted by JASPERRDM
ex slow charger dc vs ac, fast charger, the various adaptors you need to charge btty with. Ex bananna plug with dean connector. balancer and what they do.
DC = Direct Current (This type of charger receives it's power by plugging it into a seperate power supply such as a car battery, ect.)

AC = Alternate Current (This type of charger receives it's power by plugging it into a wall outlet.)

Fast charger = Usually charges batteries in increments of 15 minutes.

Balancer = Balances each cell in LiPo (Lithium Polymer) batteries to an equal number of volts.

Deans = A type of connector that is commonly used on batteries and ESC's.

Bananna plug = Another type of connector that is commonly used on DC chargers.
Jul 11, 2008, 01:10 PM
Proud member of LISF and ESL
Originally Posted by BD Flyer
Fast charger = Usually charges batteries in increments of 15 minutes.

That is an interesting way to define a fast charger.

A slow charger is one that typically charges a battery over a period of 10 hours or more. This would be referred to as 1/10C charging.

A fast charger is one that typically charges a battery in 1 hour or less. This would be a 1C charge rate.

( I guess if it charges somewhere between those it would be considered a half fast charger. )

Not all battery packs can be charged at a 1C rate. Some can be charged at much higher rates.

The safe charge rate is a function of the battery, not the charger.

Many NiCds can be charged at 2C rates and NiCd Sub C or larger can often be charged at 3C rates.

Most Lipos must be charged at 1C rate. However some new lipo chargers have settings that will allow them to charge certain lipos up to a 3C rate.

Your charger must match your battery type. Don't charge Lipos with a NiCd/NiMh charger or very bad things can happen.

AMPS vs. VOLTS vs. C

By Ed Anderson
aeajr on the forums

This brief discussion is intended to clear up a few terms and concepts
around electricity as it applies to electric airplanes.

Think of electricity like water. Volts = pressure Amps = flow

Volts is like pounds per square inch, psi. Says nothing about how much
water is flowing, just how hard it is being pushed. You can have 100 psi
with zero water flow.

Amps is flow, like gallons per hour. You can have flow at low pressure and
you can have flow at high pressure.

Amp hours is how much flow can be sustained for how long. It is used as a
way of measuring how much electricity is in the battery. Like how many
gallons of gas in your tank. It is a capacity number. Says nothing about
flow or pressure, it is about capacity.

Amps and mili amps? We are just moving the decimal point around.

1 amp (short for ampere) = 1000 miliamps (mili means 1/1000 amps)


So a 7 cell NIMH or NICD pack provides 8.4V (pressure).

The motor will draw electricity from the pack at a certain flow rate, or

If you have a have a 650 mili amp hour pack, it can deliver a flow of .650
amps (650 miliamps) for one hour. If you draw it out faster, it
doesn't last as long. So your motor might pull 6.5 amps for 1/10 of an
hour, or about 6 minutes.

A 1100 mah pack has double the capacity of the 650 mah pack, so it should
last "about" twice as long when discharging at the same rate.

What is C in relation to batteries?

C ratings are simply a way of talking about charge and discharge rates for

1C, = 1 time the rated mah capacity of the battery. So if you charge your
650 mah pack at 1C, you charge it a 650 miliamps, or .650 amps.

1C on a 1100 pack would be 1.1 amps.

2 C on your 1100 pack would be 2.2 amps

Motor batteries are often rated in Discharge C and charge C.

So a 1100 mah pack (1.1 amp hour) might be rated for 10C discharge, so you
can pull 11 amps ( flow ) without damaging the battery.

Then it might be rated at 2C charge rate (flow), so you charge it at 2.2
amps (2200 mah)

How did I do? Things clearing up?

If you have a 500 mah pack - any kind - and it is rated at 16C that means it
can deliver 8 amps.

If you have a 1000 mah pack - any kind - and it is rated at 8C that means it
can deliver 8 amps.

If you have a 1000 mah pack - any kind - and it is rated at 12C that means
it can deliver 12 amps

If you have a 1500 mah pack - any kind - and it is rate at 8C that means it
can deliver 12 amps

If you have a 1500 mah pack - any kind - and it is rated at 20 C that means
it can deliver 30 amps.

If you have a 3000 mah pack - any kind - and it is rated at 10 C that means
it can deliver 30 amps.

So, if you need 12 amps you can use a pack with a higher C rating or a pack
with a higher mah rating to get to needed amp delivery level.

One last point. Motor batteries vs. receiver batteries

Some batteries can sustain high discharge rates. Others can not.

Those used as transmitter/receiver packs typically are made for low flow/amp
rates while those made for motor packs can sustain higher rates.

Having a 600 mah pack does not tell you if it is a motor pack that can put
out 6 amps, or if it is a transmitter/receiver pack that would be damaged if
you tried to pull power at 6 amps. It is enough to say that they are

Clearly a motor pack could be used for a transmitter/receiver job, but a
transmitter/receiver pack should not generally be used as a motor pack.

It is best to size your battery packs so they run somewhat below their
maximum C rating. You will stress them less and they will last longer. For
example, if your motor needs a pack that can deliver 10 amps, getting a 1000
mah pack that is rated for 10C ( 10 amps ) will meet the spec, but it is
running at its limit. A 15 C rated 1000 mah pack would be better, or
perhaps a 1300 mah 10 C pack. In either of these cases, the pack will be
less stressed and should handle the load much better over the long term.

Other Resources

Sizing Electric Power Systems -


Lithium Batteries

Lithium Balancers and Balancing Chargers

New Electric Flyer FAQs

A series of posts on electric power system basics

MotoCalc will tell you everything you need to know: Amps, Volts, Watts, RPM,
Thrust, Rate of Climb, and much more! It is a popular tool for predicting
the proper motor, prop, battery pack for electric planes.

The Great Electric Motor Test

Electric Motors Described
Jul 11, 2008, 01:26 PM
Proud member of LISF and ESL
Originally Posted by ian_ryeng
Perhaps someone would like to explain the difference between hard and soft lvc?

Also, is servo control lost with either (i believe it is not with soft but not sure about hard) since i dont really want to test if someone knows...

The purpose of LVC, low voltage cutoff is preserve power for the servo/receivers. It serves a secondary purpose with Lithium batteries in that it prevents us from running the pack too low.

A hard LVC would be when the motor just suddenly cuts off.
A soft LVC would either slow the motor so the pilot will recognize it or may pulse the motor. A total cut off may follow soon after.

You may find this a useful resource:

Understanding the BEC/LVC Features of your ESC