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Dec 15, 2010, 06:29 AM
Engineer for Christ
IBCrazy's Avatar

How to FPV: Newbies thread - New Multirotor tuning video

Newbies to FPV please post your questions in this thread and we will try to answer them!

In the USA, you are required by law to hold an amatuer radio license for all FPV transmitters (including UHF radios) unless specifically marked as FCC part 15 compliant. To my knowledge the only units that are legal for use without a HAM license are the TBS Greenhorn and the Iftrontech Nano Stinger.

This page will be continually updated to ensure everything is relevant. No need to read the entire thread. It's all right here.

We see the same questions repeated over and over again from people wanting to get into this aspect of aviation. Attached is a document I put together covering most of the questions newcomers have for FPV and included many of the questions they should have as well. The document deliberately leaves equipment out of most of it's pages. The reason is that the equipment is usually subject to opinion on what is good and what is not. I also am affiliated with certain FPV vendors and do not want to appear biased in anyway. However, I will say that Hobby King equipment historically has performed measurably worse than anything the FPV vendors sell. When in doubt, buy from a specialized FPV vendor.

How-to videos!

FPV Basics
How to be successful in FPV Part 1 - What is FPV? (3 min 29 sec)

Selecting the proper airframe
How to be successful in FPV part2 - Choosing an airplane (0 min 0 sec)

FPV video system and Frequency selection
How to be successful in FPV part3 - The video system explained (0 min 0 sec)

FPV Antenna Selection
How to be successful in FPV part 4 - The antenna system (9 min 15 sec)

How to build a ground station
How to be successful in FPV part 5 - The ground station (7 min 31 sec)

Advanced FPV systems
How to be successful in FPV - Part 6 Advanced systems (6 min 25 sec)

How to wire it up:
How to be successful in FPV part 7: Wiring it up (12 min 17 sec)

Making your first flights:
How to be successful in FPV part 8: Your first flights (5 min 17 sec)

Radio Communication Explained
How to be successful in FPV part 9 - Radio Communication (19 min 20 sec)

How to make a long range flight (and what can go wrong in the process)
How to be successful in FPV part 10 - Long Range flying (20 min 7 sec)

How to make a night flight
Success in FPV Part: 11 - The Night Flight (16 min 36 sec)

What tools you need (and how to use them)
Success in FPV part12 - Tools of the trade (14 min 55 sec)

Trouble Shooting your video link
Success in FPV part 13 - Trouble shooting (11 min 5 sec)

FPV Racing - Getting the most in the air that you can
Success in FPV part 14: Racing FPV (10 min 48 sec)

Multirotor tuning how-to
Success in FPV part 15 - Multirotor tuning (9 min 18 sec)

Advanced Multirotor PID tuning
Success in FPV part 16 - PID tuning explained (6 min 0 sec)

What makes a good FPV system?
There are two items that make the greatest impact on the enjoyment of your FPV plane: The camera, and the antennas you select. Selecting a good camera that performs well in different lighting conditions will allow you to see well at dusk where many cameras simply black out all ground definition. 420 TVL resolution is good enough for most purposes. It is better to select a camera with excellent BLC (back light compensation) and color saturation than one with a high resolution.

Antennas are the critical link between you and the aircraft. The proper selection of antennas is perhaps the most important thing to FPV flying. The antennas are the difference between a long range system capable of 20 miles and a system only good for short range. Most range issues are in fact a result of multipathing of the signal. People having problems with multipath interference should consider using a circularly polarized antenna system or a directional antenna of moderate gain.

The following items are listed in order of importance to your FPV flying success:

1. Proper selection and use of the antenna system. High gain omni antennas are absolutelty horrible for FPV!
2. Proper selection of a performance camera
3. Quality video receiver
4. Use of proper filtration equipment (ie chokes, ferrite rings, power filters, ect)
5. Selection of a good, familiar airframe (this does not necessarily mean a basic plane)
6. Selection of the proper VTx and proper power

Help us help you fix your problem/answer your question

I must get 10 of these Emails a day asking what the problem is or what range to expect. 9 times out of 10, I can't answer it. Why? The person doesn't understand the information they need to provide in order to get a fairly accurate answer. RF is not easy nor intuitive, but a little knowledge goes a long way.

Here's what you do:

If you have a problem post the following:
- A picture or several pictures displaying how it is set up
- A photo of your ground station as you would have it set up for flight
- Several photos taken of you while flying from different angles. I need to know what your surroundings are and see your ground station in action.
- A short video clip of the problem.
- Full description of equipment used (frequency, antennas, radio system)
- A description of your flying location
- Did you turn off your cell phone or leave it in your car?

Cell phone? Really? Yes! They operate very close to the bands we use for FPV. Turn it off or leave it in the car.

If you want a range estimate we need the following:
- Frequency
- Tx power
- RX sensitivity (if not known, simply telling me the RX you use with a link is ok)
- Antennas you plan to use
- A few photos of the area you wish to fly
- A description of your intended surroundings
- How you intend to fly (high and straight, low, doing stunts)

Other resources:

For a glossary of terms and troubleshooting guide, go here:

An excellent source of information is here in secret squirrel's blog.

Some advice from a very experienced FPV pilot: Team Black Sheeps system philosophies for success

A very complete guide on what is possibly the most popular FPV plane: Kevin's FPV Easy Star thread

Additionally, there is a wealth of information on everything from antenna construction to scratchbuild airframes to motor design in IBCrazy's blog.


The range equation - Use this equation to estimate how far (in miles) you will be able to achieve:

Range capability in miles = 1/2 + number of hours under the hood/40 + number of study hours/100 + hours spent talking with an experienced FPVer/20

Thus if you have 24 hours of airtime experience under the hood, 50 or so hours of research, and an afternoon talking to a highly experienced FPV pilot, you can expect to be able to make a 2 mile flight successfully.

Have fun in your ventures,


Please note: I am not endorsing any specific person or vendor. I do this of my own free will and desire to help out the newcomers to the community.
Last edited by IBCrazy; Dec 08, 2015 at 08:14 AM.
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Dec 15, 2010, 01:39 PM
Just trying to get a nut.
scrtsqrl's Avatar

Good document. May I suggest adding:

What to consider when picking a suitable flying location when learning how to fly FPV. I'm sure you have you're own list. I consider factors like:
1. Know your airspace.
2. Minimum "uncovered" people
3. Minimum Obstructions
4. Stay away from Full Scale Airports, unless you have permission
5. Soft Grass or Sand
6. Recognizable Land Marks

Understanding the rules that we, fall under in the US, which is for now are FAA AC 91-57 and if you fly at an AMA field, AMA Code 550.

Last edited by scrtsqrl; May 05, 2011 at 09:38 AM.
Dec 16, 2010, 03:01 AM
On a holiday?
boopidoo's Avatar
I can contribute this simple wire diagram of how I hooked up power, audio and video in my HK Mini Swift. It includes how I installed a 100mW Airwave VTx module (AWM655-TX). Buying a separate VTx module is a great way to cut costs and it's not difficult at all.

In the finished model I used an amplified microphone instead and didn't have to install a LC-filter because the picture was perfect. I'm sorry if the schematics isn't how a professional would draw it, but it made my install easier anyways.
Last edited by boopidoo; Dec 16, 2010 at 07:48 AM.
Dec 16, 2010, 07:50 AM
On a holiday?
boopidoo's Avatar
I think that Sanders LC-filter is something that would benefit this thread.

Originally Posted by ssassen View Post
For the folks that missed the post in the other topic, here's a little pictorial on LC filtering. I always use a piece of servo wire and strip off the signal wire so I'm left with BLACK-RED. For constructing the inductor (the L in LC filtering) I loop both wires through a ferrite ring as many times as it'll fit, but at least >5 times. I use both wires as that gives a little better attenuation of the ESC noise as the inductor now becomes a common mode inductor.

I then simply solder a 470...1000uF/25V electrolytic capacitor (the C in LC filtering) to the side that attaches to the audio/video transmitter and the camera. The capacitor is polarized, hence it has a + and - pole. The - pole is marked with a stripe and - symbols on one end, you can't miss it, that needs to go on the BLACK wire, the + pole is on the RED wire. This will clear up any ESC noise that normally causes lines in the video. The parts you'll need are:

- Length of servowire
- Ferrite ring
- 470...1000uF 25 volt electrolytic capacitor

Fig 1. Here's the parts you'll need, available from Radio Shack and similar stores.

Fig 2. Here's the servo wire being looped through the ferrite ring.

Fig 3. And that's the finished LC filter with the capacitor soldered on.

All that is required now is some shrinkwrap to keep the inductor tightly wound and to go over the exposed electrical contacts. That's it, simple yet effective and all that from a mere few $$$ worth of electronic parts.


Dec 16, 2010, 04:13 PM
Engineer for Christ
IBCrazy's Avatar

Getting help from a vendor

So you're having problems with a product and seeking help from the vendor. You've seen time and time again that many vendors seem to not respond. Why? How do you be sure you get a response?

1. Make your inquiries as brief as possible with all information. Be straight to the point but polite. Include your order number, your expectations (ie replacement, repair, ect), your mailing address as well as a brief explanation of the problem. DO NOT GO INTO DETAIL UNLESS PROMPTED AND RESIST THE TEMPTATION TO BE RUDE!!!

2. Be realistic about your issue. Vendors have much going on. They are not in front of their computers 24 hours a day. They take weekends and holidays off. They also get many inquiries per day and many of them are from people who are too lazy to do any reading. They also get a lot of Emails accidentally kicked to our SPAM folders that they legitimately miss.

3. Do your research first. Take the time to read what is on the vendor's site. Many times the instructions and everything you need to know is posted right on the website somewhere. Understanding a systems limitations is huge. An educated customer is a good customer (to an honest vendor at least).


Example of a good inquiry:
To whom it may concern,

I recently ordered your cloverleaf antenna for my aircraft and I was hoping for more improvement in performance than what I am seeing. I still have disturbances in my goggles. I am struggling to make it past 1 mile. The antenna did not appear damaged in shipment. I am flying in a rural area with mostly open fields. There are no transmission towers nearby that I know of.

I am afraid your antenna is defective. Can I send it back to you for testing?

My current set up is as follows:
1280 MHz 700 mW system from XYZ vendor: <link>
Using an 8dbi pacth antenna on the RX: <link>

My order from you is as follows:

Order# 1001
August 28th, 2011
1 - cloverleaf antenna 1280 MHz
1 - 6" antenna extension cable

Can you help me?



Example of proper resopnse:
Sorry for the delay in responding, I was away for the weekend. At first glance you are seeing multipath interference, but it could be noise floor or a Fresnel zone violation. It's hard to tell. If you can make a brief 1 minute video on the disturbances and send a picture of your plane and ground station, I can probably help.

You are using a circular antenna with a linear one, so this increases multipath interference. A helical antenna or CP patch would eliminate this issue and would be a direct replacement for your linear patch. Please see the tutorial on the website for more information on this.

However, if your problem is noise floor (although at your frequency and location it does not sound like it), you might need to switch frequencies.

If you'd like to send your antenna back for testing I would be happy to test it for you so long as you pay return shipping if everything turns out ok. I can test your patch too if you like. If you do send it back, please include a copy of this Email. Otherwise I'll be guessing at what I'm supposed to do with this equipment.

I hope that helps,

Last edited by IBCrazy; Sep 08, 2011 at 09:56 AM.
Dec 16, 2010, 11:35 PM
Suspended Account
That is so so so true.

maiden your plane and fly it many times then put your fpv gear into it.

for sure rule #1

rule #2 do all your fpv ground tests before actual install
#3 fly non fpv with everything set up and then review the video

#4 fly fpv with a spoter and stay high
#5 enjoy your fpv experience

rule #0 don't take on a plane you have no idea how to fly or have no experience with and install fpv gear in and then maiden only a fool would do that

Originally Posted by ashdec87 View Post
Dont know if this was mentioned or not, but tip #1 should be to keep it simple for the first couple flights. Not worth slamming $500 worth of equipment in the ground on the first flight. Takes the worries out of it too when you dont have to worry about so much cash in the air.
Dec 18, 2010, 03:54 AM
Registered User

What is a good camera? - what specs should I look for?
I want a camera that has a good resolution (I think).

What about starting fpv with a gopro camera (without video transmitting) first? - then use the av out on the gopro camera to stream video later, when I get my first video tx/rx??

- I know gopro is quite expensive, but it does not broke easily? - and last for a long time!? Normally I dont crash, but theres always a risk...

Will the picture be gradually more bad when distance to the plane increases?
Dec 18, 2010, 07:38 AM
On a holiday?
boopidoo's Avatar
My suggestion, as I wrote in your thread, is to buy an inexpensive camera such as the CX-161 or a Sony board camera. You will crash, better to destroy a $20 camera then an expensive GoPro. Even if the GoPro is sturdy it will not survive all crashes. So no, I wouldn't use a GoPro as the first FPV-camera.
Dec 19, 2010, 08:52 AM
Registered User
typicalaimster's Avatar
Originally Posted by Foskje View Post
buy a cheap camera first, then a better one (maybe this one) later...
Buy a cheap CASED camera first. I went through two uncased cameras when I started out in FPV. My current cased KX-131 has been through a few crashes and is still ticking along.

^^ $52 for the camera above as an example. Yes Hobby King sells the same uncased one for $16 + S&H.. However you'll be lucky if it survives a crash!

On a side note, don't we have a FPV Wiki?
Dec 19, 2010, 09:25 PM
Registered User
CaliDave's Avatar

Newby with some though's and a question.

Does something like the "FPV Dictionary" and/or "Successful Frequency Combos for your area" exist?
Last edited by CaliDave; Aug 05, 2011 at 01:31 PM. Reason: Additional edit
Dec 19, 2010, 09:53 PM
Engineer for Christ
IBCrazy's Avatar
Originally Posted by CaliDave View Post
I'd like to eventually have some fun out of sight range, but plan to fly close adding as I go.
That right there tells me you have been doing your research. Many of us who have successfully done long range numerous times will fly the plane within line of sight many times. For example, I like doing obstacle courses which you can't do at long range.

I will see about adding a glossary of terms. That hadn't occurred to me.
Dec 19, 2010, 10:12 PM
Just trying to get a nut.
scrtsqrl's Avatar
Originally Posted by Foskje View Post
It will help if I cut a EPS foam case!

Or you could put it in a Kinder Egg:
Kinder Egg FPV Turret (1 min 55 sec)
Dec 20, 2010, 02:11 AM
On a holiday?
boopidoo's Avatar
I would like to add KYDEX as a preferred material when building stuff for FPV. It's easy to work with and can be used for a lot on a FPV model, for example a camera enclosure. The material can be cut with a scissor and when heated up with a heat gun or even a candle/lighter will work can be bent very easily. It becomes hard plastic again quite fast so a mount like the one below is easily made in about an hour including cutting drilling and trimming.

I've bought my KYDEX from t=0.06in and 0.08in, the camera enclosure is made with t=0.06in.

I've done some drawings on a pan/tilt-mount as well as a camera enclosure which fits the popular uncased cameras.
Last edited by boopidoo; Dec 20, 2010 at 02:26 AM.
Dec 20, 2010, 02:27 AM
On a holiday?
boopidoo's Avatar
Ferrite cores are sold at
Dec 20, 2010, 04:32 AM
Registered User
Well I have changed opinion again!

For now, I think I will go for a camera that I will be happy to use, otherwise I will buy a new camera very soon.. I hope that I will not crash ( that hard)..

I have tied to search for cameras and watched videos on youtube, I found these cameras:


I will not spend more mony on the camera, but I am alwas willing to spend less if theres some cameras that is just as good as these... or even better...

Is it a bad idea to use main battery for all electronics in the plane? - even if I'm using a separate ubec?

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