Oh oh oh, I forgot one other thing. Motors have both a max amperage and max wattage rating. You shouldn't go over either by putting on too large of a prop.
And I'll use examples to explain C ratings of batteries, as I can't think of the words and that's my excuse for not knowing everything.
1800mAh battery rated at 40C discharge and 5C charge
1800mAh = 1.8Ah (duh)
1.8Ah x 40C = 72A discharge rating
1.8Ah x 5C = 9A charge rating
800mAh battery rated at 15C discharge and 1C charge
800mAh = 0.8Ah
0.8Ah x 15C = 12A discharge rating
0.8Ah x 1C = 0.8A charge rating
Your discharge rating matches up to what your motor can pull. So you make sure your battery has a discharge rating higher than what your motor pulls. You find out what your motor pulls by hooking up a meter between your battery and ESC. Your charge rating tells you how quickly your battery manufacturer says you can safely charge that battery. So you tell your charger to never go higher than that. Battery makers pretty much all also say if you go over a 1C charge rating that you may shorten the lifespan of your battery.
I have 2 chargers running off of a 10A power supply. So I never tell a charger to go over 4.5A to be safe from my stupidity. I change the rate for each of my batteries. All of my big batteries run at 4 - 4.5A and so they get charged at 2-3C. My smaller batteries I charge from 3-5C and are all rated for it. But it's ok because if they die, small batteries cost $4-6 so I don't care. It all works out.
I have these Turnigy NanoTech 1300mAh batteries, and these are the stats:
1300mAh = 1.3Ah
1.3Ah x 45C = 60A discharge
1.3Ah x 10C = 13A charge
They get charged at 4.5A and it goes faaaast. So charge rating is important if you like batteries that charge fast. Sky Lipo = 3C charge, GensAce = 5C charge. Tunigy Nanotechs are rated high like 8-10C, but who knows if that's real or not.
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