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View Poll Results: Which quadrocopters and/or tricopters do you fly?
Aeroquad 211 7.07%
Alien Jump Jet 48 1.61%
Alien Saucer 35 1.17%
Draganflyer DF-IV 34 1.14%
Draganflyer DF-V TI 23 0.77%
Draganflyer Experimental Brushless (Spectrolutions) 39 1.31%
Draganflyer X6 32 1.07%
Quadpowered 247 8.28%
Microdrone 35 1.17%
Mikrokopter V1.0-ME 102 3.42%
Mikrokopter V1.0-ME with NAVI 193 6.47%
Mini-Mixer quadrocopter 31 1.04%
Mini-Mixer tricopter 28 0.94%
Self-build quadrocopter flight board/firmware 1,353 45.34%
Self-build tricopter flight board/firmware 718 24.06%
UAVP 73 2.45%
UAVP-NG 26 0.87%
UAVX 73 2.45%
Walkera UFO #4 32 1.07%
Walkera UFO #5 46 1.54%
Walkera UFO #8 39 1.31%
X-BL 31 1.04%
X-BL FunPilot 25 0.84%
X-BL Autopilot, ReasearchPilot, Hornet, Hummingbird, Falcon 14 0.47%
X-UFO 64 2.14%
Y-UFO LA Heli 25 0.84%
Y-UAVP 17 0.57%
Y-UAVX 30 1.01%
Multiple Choice Poll. Voters: 2984. You may not vote on this poll

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Old Aug 18, 2009, 10:37 AM
Tri-Quad-Hexa-Octo-copters!!
United States, TX, San Antonio
Joined Feb 2007
14,583 Posts
Data
Quadrocopter and Tricopter Info Mega Link Index!!

Let's all focus on and actively promote multicopter safety in 2014!!!

--TIP 1 **WARNING!: Be safe! A multicopter with a lipo attached and powered is considered armed and dangerous! Be mindful of the dangers to yourself during the setup process, and to children and adults while flying. Always remove props for initial setup and PID adjustments and test! Securely tie down or attach enough weight to hold the multicopter for the first props on Tx/Rx control tests, new firmware loads and for PID adjustments! Wear eye protection. Dull and round the leading edges and tips of your props for safety!! Read the Safety Issues section!
--Multicopter Safety threads with accident and injury photos: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1144377 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1649434 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1650767

Notice: Please use common safety sense when flying and don't do crazy things with your multicopters or any R/C aircraft that will turn the public opinion against us and ruin our hobby fun! Stay below 400ft AGL! Don't ever fly over people or expensive property! Respect the privacy of the property of your neighbors! Thanks from all of us!
AMA rules website: http://www.modelaircraft.org/aboutama/gov.aspx

^^SCROLL UP FOR THE POLL part 1. See link below for Poll part 2.vv Scroll further down below for the Mega Index of TIP's and Informational links!

Click on link to go to poll addendum for models listed below:
Quadrocopter and Tricopter Info Mega Link Index!! Poll additions part 2.
3d Robotics ArduCopter, Pixhawk
Ares Ethos QX-75 micro quad

AfroFlight32

AR.Drone
ArduPirate
AutoQuad
Beetle V929/V939 mini and micro quads by WLToys
Black Vortex/MegaPirate
Blade 350 QX
Blade nQX
ArduFlyer (RCTimer)
ArduPilot Mega (Banggood)
ARM-O-Kopter

AutoQuad AQ6, AQ7, M4
BigQuadro
BaronPilot-Tricopter
BumbleBee
CADMicopter
Conrad Quadrocopter 450
Corvus M3
Cyberdrones Copter
DJI WK-Multicopter
DJI NAZA
E-Flite Blade MQX
E-Flite Blade Nano QX
Estes Proto X nano
Free Flight v1.2

Feiyu Tech FY-90Q
Feiyu Tech FY-91Q w/GPS
FX-H46/TMF
Gaui-quadrocopter Gaui INS
HeliMax 1Si
Hobby King Pocket Ultra Micro quad (PUMQ) Multiwii
Hobby King Pocket Mini quad
HoverFly (Quadpowered redesign and new name)

Hubsan X4 H107 micro quad
Hubsan X4 H107L micro quad
Hubsan X4 H107C micro quad with camera
Hubsan X4 H107D FPV micro quad
Hubsan H111 Nano Q4
KapetienKuk Flight Controller
LotusRC T580 Quad
MegaPirate
MJX X100 micro quad
Miini Pet V997 micro quad
Mikrokopter six motor - hexa

Mikrokopter eight motor - octo
Mikrokopter twelve motor
MultiWiiCopter aka TriWiiCopter
Nine Eagles Galaxy Visitor 2
Openpilot CC3, Revo

Paparazzi Booz Quad
Paparazzi Drunken Monkey Quad
Paparazzi Lisa
"PCC" (Plejad Copter Control)
PIPO ISU
QuadroControl
QuadPod by Snelflight
Quad Rotor Observer (QRO)
Quadshot
Rabbit Flight Controller
RC Logger RC Eye One micro quad, Extreme
Traxxas Alias
Traxxas QR-1
TT-Copter

TurboAce X720
Shrediquette - a tricopter by William Thielicke
Sh8043 and Sh6044 micro quad
Simple standard gyro only quad by SSM

Signguy's Tricopter build
Skymixer
Skyquad
Syma X1 mini quad
UDI U816 micro quad
Vitality H36 micro quad
Xaircraft X500D

Xaircraft X600D (X500D-V2)
Xaircraft X650D
Walkera UFO MX400
Walkera X-Wing
Walkera QR Ladybird V1 and V2 mini and micro quads
WLToys Beetle V929, V949, V959 mini and V939 V202 micro quads
Zero UAV YS-X6


Quad pilot maps:
KK2: https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msid...988,173.144531
Mikrokopter: http://der.oschni.de/multikoptermap2/
Universal: http://ng.uavp.ch/moin/Map
X-BL: http://forum.xufo.net/bb/gmap.php?mode=viewmap

Items of Historical Interest:
--One of the first attempts to build a flying quadrocopter was the Gyroplane designed by Breguet-Richet in 1907: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breguet-Richet_Gyroplane
--The first manned successful full size flying quadrocopter-like helicopter was built by Etienne Oemichen, a young Peugeot engineer. It first flew in November 1920. http://aviastar.org/helicopters_eng/oemichen.php and another by George de Bothezat . It first flew in December 1922: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Bothezat_helicopter
--The first manned electric motor multicopter flight 21 October 2011. Built by a German team of innovators at E-Volo, a branch of Syntern Corporation (GmbH), CEO Stephen Wolf, Thomas Senkel, elecrtic drives, and Alexander Zosel, a visionary entrepreneur and inventor: http://www.e-volo.com/information/first-flight-vc1
--The first commercial hobby grade R/C piezo gyro quadrocopter was the DraganFlyer Roswell flyer in 1999. This was designed and developed by Spectrolutions Mike Dammer, www.spectrolutions.com. Historical data: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=913
--Wikipedia quadrocopter definitions: http://translate.google.com/translat...n&hl=&ie=UTF-8 and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadrotor
--A future tilt-rotor quad: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_Boeing_Quad_TiltRotor

Why fly Multicopters? Video contest winner:
Why Fly A Multirotor - Contest Winner (2 min 59 sec)

**Updated 2 August 2014**

Hello Quad and Tricopter and all Multicopter enthusiasts!
I intend to keep this updated with Multicopter information as a placeholder and way to get links to the mountains of info that is out there. Please advise if you come across anything additional and of interest to the community.

The year 2013 again brought us many new muticopters, vendors, features and capabilities. One notable arrival was the first commercially produced nano sized Mini(<30cm-15cm) and Micro(<15cm-6cm) and Nano(<6cm) Hubsan H111 Nano Q4 and the rebranded Estes Proto X at a mere 5cm diameter. It is a perfect multicopter trainer for indoor flying in a small sized room yet still does very well outdoors in light winds. The development of open source waypoint navigation continues with impressive accuracy achievements by the AutoQuad team and the Arduino based and Multiwii multicopter coders and builders. The Mikrocopter and UAVX are still continuing development too. I predict we will see these full features in the mini and micro sized multicopters in the near future. Currently a rudimentary return to home feature is being implemented in several mini and micro sized multicopters based on compass heading in the multicopter and Tx and a data link. The Heli-Max 1Si and its Nine Eagles Galaxy Visitor 2 clone are examples of this feature. More fun to come in 2014!

The year 2012 saw many new multicopters introduced as well as ESC's designed for multicopter use. Now in 2013 it seems the micro quad fascination has firmly taken hold in the RC community. This is great because the mini and micro multicopters are wonderful trainers and will hopefully lead to safer and more skilled RC flyers when they eventually transition to the larger and potentially more dangerous hobby grade multicopters.

One of the impressive new open source high end flight controllers released in 2012 was the AutoQuad by Bill Nesbitt. It is one of the first to use a calibration that considers temperature variations on components and the EMF and Rf from an airframe. The complementary AutoQuad ESC32's are the first ESCs designed specifically for multicopter use. They can be used to enhance performance on other flight controllers too.

Camera stabilization for AVP is also a hot topic this year with the predicted superior advent of separate IMUs mounted to a gimbal with smooth running brushless motors. The prices for these camera gimbal stabilized systems are falling to a more reasonable level with some fantastic open source development.

There was a plethora of 2.4Ghz Mini and Micro sized RTF quads released last year and they keep on multiplying. The flying characteristics are very nice even outdoors in very light wind. Some are fitted with accelerometers that cancel gyro drifting which allows true self-leveling when the sticks are released. Some of these cheapo quads can do automated and manual flips. The price ranges of $30-$125 makes them attractive for beginners and those wanting to practice flying skills without risking their pricier multicopters. See the Mini and Micro Multicopter section for more info. Also see my Micro quads comparisons 101

Deciding on a particular Quadrocopter or Tricopter is a personal decision based on skills and budget and current needs. Just for some examples: You can buy the MK almost RTF, but the AQ6, UAVP/UAVX and most other flight controller boards of high performance and quality are not available RTF. There are some Venders that build them for you. Be careful of spending thousands of dollars on an RTF without proper flight and rebuilding skills. In that case I always recommend that you purchase and learn to safely fly and repair one of the many nice $30-$120 mini and micro multicopters that are now available. Generally you need good soldering skills for wires and some board components. These are easily learned and many video tutorials are available. Some videos are linked in the Soldering sections in this Mega Link Index. Both the MK and UAVP/UAVX will do AVP in their basic form if that is your interest. The MK designed by Ingo Busker and Holger Buss requires a license for commercial use. Both are continually evolving as are many of the other quads due to technical hardware and software updates. The MK is more mature at the moment with GPS and way-points and follow me modes, but the original UAVP designed by Dr Wolfgang Mahringer aka Wolferl is a stable platform. It now has a major update by Prof Greg Egan aka GKE that has performance improvements, and a GPS hover hold and RTH and waypoint and more capability that was released on 15 August 2009 as the UAVX. The UAVX PIC firmware requires a $10 plug-in replacement 18F2620 PIC to upgrade the original UAVP board. A new and completely updated UAVXARM32F4 flight controller version was released in 2012. There is a follow-on UAVP-NG project with completely redesigned boards, hardware and firmware. The project is headed by Amir Guindehi and his team in Switzerland. The MK boards, (V2(ME), NAVI, GPS, I2c ESCs) are on the average about $500 more in total minus the frame and TX/RX and you have to purchase the boards from Germany, which incurs additional shipping and 19% German value added tax and sometimes customs charges, and wait. The UAVP and UAVX parts and muliticopter motors and ESC's are available at Ken's www.quadroufo.com site in California, USA.

There are several closed source multicopter flight controllers now available that are focused on ease of setup. These also tend to be higher priced and charge for extra features such as waypoint navigation. Look for the DJI and ZeroUAV links in the Project Quads/Hexas/Octos section for more info.

Multicopters are all fairly stable within their individual limitations. The original X-BL and the Walkera and Gaui and the mini and micro multicopters in their stock version are limited in what they can lift with the supplied ESC's and motors/props. Some multicopters can use ESC's that have higher current capability and can easily be fitted with larger motors and props and higher power ESC's for payloads up to 3lbs or maybe even more with decreased flight time. So consider those factors if you want to use camera payloads that are more than 7oz or about 200g.

Some additional guidance:

Commercial offerings: BIY, Open Source, ARTF/RTF breakdown:
--The AeroQuad32 by Mikro: FCB ~$149.95, http://www.aeroquadstore.com/AeroQua...p/aq32-001.htm, ARTF AeroQuad Typhoon ~$449.95, http://www.aeroquadstore.com/AeroQua.../aqarf-002.htm , ARTF Cyclone~$534.95: http://www.aeroquadstore.com/AeroQua.../aqarf-001.htm
--The AfroFlight32 aka NAZE32 by timecop:~$75 +ship. STM32F103 processor at 72Mhz, Magnometer, 3-axis MEMs gyro and accelerometer, BMP085, and USB. It will run FreeFlight firmware and a Multiwiicopter code port is in progress. RCG thread: Timcop is currently now only active in the Multiwii forums and does not post in RCGroups: http://www.multiwii.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=22&t=2387 , RCG NAZE32 threads: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post20761581 , Afroflight Naze32 Setup Guide For Dummies, like myself. by Sdueck, Store: http://abusemark.com/store/index.php...products_id=30
--The Alien Air Jump Jet and Saucer quads ~$37-$130, http://www.goodluckbuy.com/rc-flying...e-control.html, and the soon to be released Quadpod ~$325: http://www.snelflight.co.uk/ forums: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=813134 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1319214
--The Arduino processor powered series of ARTF/BIY multicopters includes the original AeroQuad/MicroQuad by Micro, The DIYDrones ArduCopter, the ArduPirate team builds and others listed in the Projects section of this index below.This open source allowed RCTimer to manufacture and sell the ArduFlyer which runs the same flight firmware. Feature rich with GPS and sonar capabilities, a ground station and setup utilities. ~$100 BIY, ~$1200ARTF.
--The AR.Drone: Available as a prototype for game developers and in a ARTF package ~$350-$1200 ARTF requires Apple IPhone, ITouch, or Linux WiFi. Other Tx possibilities are being developed, http://ardrone.parrot.com/parrot-ar-drone/en/ uses IPhone or ITouch for control and video for position hold. RCG forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1282893 Projects: https://projects.ardrone.org/projects/show/ardrone-api Tx WiFi-less mod: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1420951
--The Ascending Technologies Hobby Line X-BL with X-3D, FunPilot and OpenSourcePilot options: *~$1200-1600: http://www.xufo-shop.de/ forum thread: http://forum.xufo.net and RGGroups XUFO, X-BL, Part 3 forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=950768
--The Ascending Technologies Commercial Autopilot, ReasearchPilot, Hornet, Hummingbird, Falcon quadrocopters Line ~$5-10K: http://asctec.de/main/index.php?id=&pid=&cat=&lang=en
--The AutoQuad by Bill Nesbitt ~$400 plus shipping and plus 25% VAT if in Europe. The available videos show this to be a very stable multicopter with GPS features:Main Autoquad site: www.autoquad.org , RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1683776 , http://diydrones.com/profiles/blogs/autoquad-ver-56 and http://diydrones.com/profiles/blogs/...ad-version-6-1 ESC32 by Bill Nesbitt ~$40ea: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1679226
--The Beetle V929, V949, V95919cm diameter and Beetle V939 13cm diameter WLtoys RTF quadrocopter. ~$40-$60 with Tx shipped: http://www.banggood.com/buy/v939/ind...0-0_page1.html Has brushed geared motors, has four adjustable stick sensitivity rates from the Tx and is able to do front/back and side to side flips. RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...highlight=v939 A nice cheapo trainer for Newbs and olds
--The BigQuadro *~$200: http://www.tt-tronix.de and forum: http://www.tt-tronix.de/forum/
--The BumbleBee by Sheng Tian. It is internally identical to the DJI NAZA but limited to + and X quadrocopter and altitude hold. ~$180 for the flight controller at http://www.goodluckbuy.com/bumblebee...ontroller.html, ~$435 ARTF at http://www.goodluckbuy.com/hobbylord...-distance.html
--DJI Innovations Wookong-M *~$1200: is a module based system with GPS position hold and return to home and a PID setup application. website: http://www.dji-innovations.com en/product_detail.php?idx=wookong-m_introduction US store: http://www.djiusa.com/ RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1486386 , DJI Wookong-M mini-technical-review
--DJI Innovations NAZA *~$220: +~$170 for GPS add-on, quad +/x, hexa (no y6 as yet), 3-axis gyros, accelerometer and barometer. It has D-Bus support, upgrade support, and extendible port. RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1536553
--DJI Innovations Phantom, FC40, Vision and Vision+ quads ~$600-$1600 RTF, includes Tx, NAZA flight controller and GPS with hover hold and RTH. The vision version includes an IOS and Android groundstation with 16 programmable waypoints. RCG threads: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1774685, http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...phantom+vision
--The Draganflyer E4, X4, X6 and X8 at~$5-30K http://www.draganfly.com/industrial/products.php Draganflyer X6 at ~$15-28K http://www.draganfly.com/uav-helicop...m_highlight=x6, forum here: http://x6helicopter.proboards.com/in...hread=8&page=4
--Eagle Tree Systems Vector multicopter and aircraft flight controller with GPS +OSD, ~$279. New to Eagle Tree Systems is the Vector flight controller that is built with FPV in mind and can be used in multicopters. The Vector system includes the base controller unit, the GPS/Magnetometer, and the Current Sensor/PSU. It features a full color OSD, razor sharp graphics, RTH, Loiter, Geofense, Cartesian, Polar, and on-screen menus that allow for changes at the field without a computer. The computer software allows for setup and groundstation telemetry. Website: http://www.eagletreesystems.com/inde...product_id=136, RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=2032857
--The E-Flite Blade MQX: ~$140 ARTF, ~$170 RTF. 3-axis gyro stabilization only. Brushed motors with gear reduction. Stores: http://www.google.com/products/catal...ed=0CD0Q8wIwAQ , RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ht=e+flite+mqx
--Free Flight v1.3: *~$37-50, a flight controller with STM32 processor, 3-axis gyro and accelerometers, firmware upgradeable. RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1548820 Stores: http://www.sunsky-online.com/product/default!view.do?contact=&subject.id=241845&source= linkshare&siteID=je6NUbpObpQ-oayU6.nSiYIfLjKxTz43pg and http://www.goodluckbuy.com/free-flig...exacopter.html
--Feiyu Tech which offers the successful FY-20A to stabilizer for model aircraft and which has also been successfully used experimentally to give "gyro only" multicopters self leveling using 3-axis MEMs gyros and accelerometers, now also sells a dedicated quadrocopter flight controller board also with 3-axis MEMs gyros and accelerometers, FY-90Q: *NLA Superseded by the FY90Q Pro edition. RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1304595 FY-90Q parameters spreadsheet: https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?...CJ7p6PwB#gid=0 forum: http://forum.feiyu-tech.com/viewforu...0d7447d742d336 Stores: http://shop.fyetech.com/index.php?cP...2790e24fd28856 , and has recently updated the FY-90Q with a Pro edition, FY-90Q Pro, which is firmware upgradeable and capable of bicopter, tricopter hexacopter and octocopter configurations: RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ight=fy90q+pro , Store: http://shop.fyetech.com/product_info...products_id=41 , ~$128 plus shipping. Feiyu Tech has started selling the FY-91Q bicopter, quadrocopter, hexacopter, octocopter stabilizer with GPS position hold, altitude hold and heading. RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1408019 Price ~$400. Stores http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1279902 and http://www.allerc.com/fyetech-fy-91q...ps-p-6224.html
--Another inexpensive beginner RTF is the Gaui quad: ~$349 ARTF. Store: http://www.flying-hobby.com , and http://www.allerc.com/gaui-330x-s-qu...ro-p-6038.html , Forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1229089 , Gaui INS ~$800. Forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1541681 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...light=gaui+ins
--The Hoverfly is a commercial redesign of the George Sapp's Quadpowered multicopter flight controller board project. It has 3 gyros, and accelerometer and an OSD and is configurable as a quad, hexa and octo and uses standard ESCs. Price for the base board is *~$450. There is now an add-on board with a GPS with compass which gives a position hold and return to home capability. Price ~$450. A stripped down version is the Hoverfly Sport that uses a 3-axis MEMS gyro, optional ultrasonic sensor input for indoor flight. ~$250. Store and forum: http://www.hoverflytech.com RCG Forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1310552 , and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1060552
--The Hubsan X4 is one of the smallest micro quads at 9cm motor-to-motor. It is very precise with its 3-axis gyros and 3-axis accelerometer. The rates can be adjusted for both the normal and expert modes to adjust the desired flying control feel. The accelerometer can be calibrated if necessary using stick movements. It can do tight turns and flips using stick movements. The Traxxas QR-1 is a re-branded version with a minor change to the normal rate default to make it more docile out of the box. Price ~$35 with ship and up from various Vendors. RCG threads: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ight=hubsan+x4 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ight=hubsan+x4 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ight=hubsan+x4 , X4 deals/dealers/shipping/tracking thread
-- KapteinKuk aka Rolf Bakke released a KK2 flight controller ~$30 with digital gyros and accelerometer and onboard LCD and USBasp, Atmel Mega324PA 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller with 32k of memory. An additional 2 motor output channels have been added to the KK2.0 allowing for a total of 8 motors to be controlled (Octocopter). A handy Piezo buzzer is also included with the board for audio warning when activating and deactivating the board./uh_viewItem.asp?idProduct=24723on 21 June 2012 at HobbyKing: http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store The HK buddy codes are ~$18 making this a superb multicopter deal. RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1675613
--The LotusRC T580 is a decent beginner ARTF quadrocopter for ~$300 plus shipping. website: http://www.lotusrc.com/xxzl.asp?ID=1241 , RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...highlight=t580 It has gone through many improvements since it first came out in about February 2011.
--The Microdrone ~$20-$50K+ RTF includes TX and video recording equipment: http://www.microdrones.com/ Forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1296912
--If you understand computers and how to load firmware, and like partially open source code--go with a multicopter designed by Ingo Busker and Holger Buss, the Mikrokopter *~$1000-2000: https://www.mikrocontroller.com/inde...c95e40ddd59cb9 and forums: Part 1: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=716870 , part 2: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1336561 and http://www.mikrokopter.us/index.php , another German one is here: http://www.1hoch4.net/shop/index.php...i4v53402ajtc02 , a ARTF MK is here ~$1300+ http://www.lcc-shop.de/index.htm and New Generation Hobbies in Canada: http://nghobbies.com/ and Mikrokopter US located in Royal Oaks, California USA shop and forum: www.mikrokopter.us and another US shop located in Coram, Montana: http://www.quadrocopter.us/ , Aerobot.com in Australia: http://www.aerobot.com.au/shop/index...iewCat&catId=4 *The MK can also be set up via modified firmware in tricopter, hexa, octo and 12 motor configurations. Features with all optional NAVI, MKMag and MKGPS boards include altitude hold, position hold, return to home, carefree mode, auto-land, follow me(additional boards required), way-points. Note: Requires a $1000-$3000 license fee for commercial use and increased waypoint distances.
--The OpenPilot CopterController and updated CC3D: The FCB has a 32 bit ARM processor at 72Mhz, 3-axis MEMs gyros and accelerometer. This initial OP CC FCB is intended to be a "light" version of a full up FCB with navigation and other features TBD. The open source firmware is in development. The pre-release version shows great potential. Currently only gyro and accelerometer stabilization, with the possibility of more to come. ~$95. RCG forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1444141 main web site: http://www.openpilot.org/Main_Page Boards can be purchased in many countries. See the OpenPilot website for a store nearest you. http://www.openpilot.org/get-hardware/ OpenPilot production status: http://www.openpilot.org/openpilot-production-status/
--The OpenPilot Revolution. ~$TBD. GPS and navigation waypoints. Currently in development. www.openpilot.org
--The PIPO ISU(Inertial Stabilization Unit) flexible ISU for multicopter, helicopter, aircraft and camera gimbal by erazz. ~$65 for Atmega328P processor, 3-axis MEMs gyro and 3-axis accelerometer. Runs PIPO firmware, and Multiwiicopter and Arduprirates ports. Store: http://www.eraviv.com/store/page2.html, RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1392884
--The Rabbit Flight Controller: *~$90, a flight controller with a NuvoTon processor running at 50Mhz, 3-axis gyro and accelerometers, firmware upgradeable. Quadcopter Multicopter with Altitude Hold, Direction Care Free modes, sonar, GPS add-on ~$50, RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1564594 , WARNING: What to do if you see a possible GPL violation It has been shown that this Rabbit flight controller is being sold with closed source Rabbit firmware the majority of which is Multiwiicopter open source code. That means the Rabbit developers are in violation of the GNU license that AlexinParis and the Multiwiicopter development team produced and improved over the last 5 years by not publishing their modified version of the Multiwiicopter code. I won't own one because of this I will not recommend it. There are better choices. This warning will remain until the Rabbit development team complies with the intent of the Multwiicopter GNU license and publishes the copied and modified Multwiicopter code which they call Rabbit firmware. Forum thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1610439 , GNU License Information
--The RC Eye One by RC Logger is a 12cm motor-to-motor quadcopter using a 3-axis gyro and 3-axis accelerometer. It comes RTF with a small gamepad type Tx, extra prop set, and bottom motor guards. ~$70 plus shipping. It departs from the typical micro quad with a 2s lipo that uses a proprietary connector and slighly larger more powerful motors and props and weighs 77.5g with supplied lipo. It has a beginner mode that is is very docile and should be super easy for Noobs to use. The intermediate or sport mode has a more angle authority with self-leveling. The expert mode has no self-leveling. The current firmware does not allow flips, but it can fly fast tight turns. It performs well indoors and outdoors in some light wind. website: http://www.rclogger.com/RC-EYE/RC-EY...ne-Mode-2.html , RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1754154
--The TMF(Top Micro Flight)/FX-H46/AQ-50D Pro are simple plug and play multicopter flight controllers Quad/Hexa/Octo from Taiwan. They use 3 axis gyros and accelerometers. The older TMF/FX-H46 is not firmware upgradeable, but the newer AQ-50D Pro is firmware upgradeable. ~$150 plus shipping: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1430996&, highlight=autoquad#post18101207 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ighlight=aq50d , https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&p...hl=zh_TW&pli=1 Stores: http://www.infinity-hobby.com/main/p...oducts_id=6982 , http://www.foxtechfpv.com/fhx46-quad...ler-p-286.html
--Tobias' TT-Copter that self-levels without an accelerometer or manual PID adjustments: http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&layout=2&eotf=1&u=http%3A%2F%2Ftt-rc.ath.cx%2FSHOP%2FCAT-TT-Copter frame, motors and ESC's extra; board only=~$220 http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1017583
--If you are not computer literate and like to keep it simple with IR temperature sensors for horizon leveling in good weather conditions and relatively low cost go Spectrolutions Thermal Imaging V2 brushless quad flight controller by Mike Dammer who designed the flight controllers for the Draganflyer V1-V5 TI: *~$370 for the board: http://www.spectrolutions.com/newwebsitearc_009.htm and forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=768115
--The TurboAce X720/X780/X830 ARTF quad is a similar design and in some cases shares components from the LotusRC T580. It has also gone through some improvements that make it a bit more reliable. ~$500-$1000 plus shipping in ARTF and RTF versions Store: www.wowhobbies.com. RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...highlight=x720
--The UAVP was originally designed and developed by Dr. Wolfgang Mahringer and is truly open source code. UAVP board history: http://amir.ch/weblog/2007/04/my-uav...beginning.html *~$14.50 for the bare main board, ~$84.50 for the populated main board without sensors, (the board and UAVP/UAVX firmware requires at least 3 gyros to fly), ~$313~$406 for the board with 5 sensors (3 gyros, 1 accelerometer, 1 compass; baro board is $28): stores: Europe: http://lipoly.de/ and US: Ken's Yu's UAVP store: http://www.quadroufo.com forums: http://forum.uavp.ch/ and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=811550 It features altitude hold and ability to use both I2c and standard ESC’s, camera pitch and roll gyro stabilization and even the ability to be configured with firmware as the typical tilt servo tricopter.
--The UAVX PIC (EDIT: now updated to the new UAVXARM32F4 for $96.50 with gyro and accelerometer and manometer and barometer) is the same board as UAVP listed above and also truly open source code. This is the improved original UAVP board updated with a plug-in replacement 18F2620 PIC, which is also available with UAVX firmware pre-loaded. The new UAVX firmware for the UAVP board is coded open source by Prof Greg Egan. It was first released 15 August 2009.: *~$14.50 for the bare board, ~$84.50 for the main board without sensors, (the board and UAVX firmware requires at least 3 gyros to fly), ~$313~$406 for the board with 5 sensors, +$28 for baro + $14.50 for replacement 18F2620 PIC and $38 for the GPS from www.quadroufo.com which is located in California. UAVX firmware, in addition to the altitude hold and ability to use both I2c and standard ESC’s, camera pitch and roll gyro stabilization and the ability to be configured with available firmware as a typical tilt servo tricopter options of the original UAVP, as a hexa and octo and more motors if desired. UAVX firmware also adds flight performance stability enhancements, GPS position hold and return to home capability, auto land and more. It can be configured as a Tricopter with single arm in front or back, Quad in + or X mode, V-tail, Hexa flat, Hexa Coax, Octo flat, Octo Coax, and has a IMU helicopter and airplane mode. The consortium of UAVX community members are continually adding more features: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1093510 , http://code.google.com/p/uavp-mods
--The UAVXARM32F4 is the fully updated in 2012 UAVP/UAVX flight controller. It is fitted with an STM32F405RG6 with FPU 168MHz (1024Kb Flash/32Kb RAM), 512KBit EEPROM, MPU6050 Gyro/Accelerometer, HMC5883L Magnetometer, MS5611 Barometer and 54mm x 51mm size. Options are GPS and Ultrasonic Rangefinder (not included). ~$96.50 plus shipping. This flight controller and UAVX firmware is wonderfully flexible. There is also a sensor-less version sold that can be mounted on the older UAVX pcb in place of the PIC processor to allow the use of the analog sensors on that flight controller board and thereby updating the legacy flight controller to the ARM STM32 bit processor. This flight controller has all the previous UAVX by Prof Greg Egan features for octo, hexa, tricopter, v-copter, helicopter and airplane IMU stabilization. The failsafe features are reliable and configurable. It will auto land. It has telemetry outputs when fitted with a data Tx and will log critical sensor and flight data information on-board for download post flight. When the optional GPS its fitted it has position hold and waypoints. Additionally it will run AlexinParis' Multiwiicopter firmware that has been modified and released by Prof Egan under the GNU open source licensing. Store: http://www.quadroufo.com/product_inf...hjh9lhpgp3ejt3 , RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1093510 , SVN: http://code.google.com/p/uavp-mods
--A completely different quadrocopter board from the original UAVP that uses ARM7 and AMTEL (for RC/Servo/Comm controller) processors is being developed by Amir and his team. It is the UAVP-NG (Next Generation) which has GPS capability and more. It was released on 26 December 2009 ~$TBD: web site: http://ng.uavp.ch/moin shop: https://ng.uavp.ch/moin/Shop forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1188932 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1364669 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...hlight=uavp+ng and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/member.php?u=143937 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1298541
--If you want a RTF relatively inexpensive quad including a TX, go Walkera UFO 4 or 5, 8, MX400, X-Wing, Hoten, QR, Scopion y6, QR Spacewalker, QR Ladybird V1 and V2: ~$60-400: http://www.walkera.com/en1/productClass.jsp?proId=U , http://www.walkera.com/en1/particular.jsp?pn=UF0-MX400, http://www.walkera.com.hk/walkera-dr...c-145_157.html and http://www.dealextreme.com/details.dx/sku.24753 and http://www.rchobbyhelicopter.com/sto...UAV_Quadcopter and parts: http://www.ckado.com/walkera-ufo-4_c...20_135_en.html and forums: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=743878 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...light=ufo+%238 and Walkera Hoten-X Review ***Updated: Video*** , Walkrea scorpion y 6 , Walkera SpaceWalker , Walkera QR Ladybird Review - Pictures, Video, Flight Times, and Thrust
--The Xaircraft X500D ~$300, X450 ~$450 and X650D~$$600 plus ~$239 for Magnometer/GPS: http://www.cnchelicopter.com/servlet...ircraft/Detail no longer available. Now sold as the X600 or X500 V2 ~$320 http://www.cnchelicopter.com/servlet...ircraft/Detail , http://www.cnchelicopter.com/servlet...r-rotor/Detail forums: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1116814 and X650 forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...highlight=x650 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...highlight=x650 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...highlight=x650 and http://translate.google.com/translat...23entry9371853 The GPS for the X650 is still in the maturation/development stage.
--The Zero UAV YS-X6 ~$1130, Available at http://gothelirc.com/default.asp. A new entry into the world market from a reputable Chinese RC company. Forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1639766

--For other DIY Multicopters see the Projects headings in the index below.

*Notes:
--Does not include a good hobby grade Tx/Rx or spare lipos, parts, etc., ~$150-700 and up.
--Additional costs to the board's sold separately are: frame: ~$0-400, brushless motors: ~$10-100 each, ESC's: ~$10-125 each, Lipos: ~$10-100, props: $2-60+ each. So: lowest additional cost= ~$120, average additional cost= ~$400, Highest additional cost= $$$$$$...

MEGA Index of build information, Tips, Stores, Projects, etc Part 1/3:
--TIP 1 **WARNING!: Be safe! A multicopter with a lipo attached and powered is considered armed and dangerous! Be mindful of the dangers to yourself during the setup process, and to children and adults while flying. Always remove props for initial setup and PID adjustments and test! Securely tie down or attach enough weight to hold the multicopter for the first props on Tx/Rx control tests, new firmware loads and PID adjustments! Wear eye protection. Read the Safety Issues section!
--TIP 2: Beginners and Noobs might want to start with the links to threads in the Beginner/Noob Info Threads section listed below.
--TIP 3: Read all the Tips in the various sections first...
--TIP 4: See the Glossary in the index below if you need help with the multicopter acronyms
--TIP 5: "If it's man-made and it flies, it will crash." Howard Hughes
Additional Informative Multicopter links:
--Arthur P's view: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=893
--Multicopter flight controller board feature comparison WIKI: http://multicopter.org/wiki/Multicopter_Table
--Multicopter flight controller board feature comparison Google Chart by mbsteed:https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/...Hc&hl=en#gid=0
--Multicopter flight controllers board feature comparison list by Oddcopter: http://oddcopter.com/flight-controllers/
--Pics of your builds!!!! Post your Pics!!!!! by tc3wins: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...3#post21083241
--The Future of Multi-Rotors video link collection thread by Widelec: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1530432
Arm materials for multicopters:
--TIP 1: Design your arms/frames/motor mounts to use pinch blocks. They will be much easier and quicker to replace. Drilling into the arms, particularly CF, will weaken them. If you use aluminum tubing, fit a 1 1/2" piece of wooden doweling in the end that mounts to the center. This will help the aluminum tubes resist bending at that stress point. The motor ends seem to do OK without this reinforcement, so it is not necessarily needed there. For CF tubing it is recommended to Gorilla glue a wood insert through the entire length for maximum strength.
--TIP 2: The prop wash over the arms generates a pulsing vibration. It is worse when the props are closer to the arms and if the arms are wide and flat. Keep the prop to arm distance as large as possible. This effect has been tested to diminish at about the radius of a prop. Some have successfully tested putting a small wedge over the tube under the prop to lessen this pulsing effect. You can feel this effect yourself by holding some arm material under the props while safely tied down with hover power input.
--Arm / Boom / Motor mounts /clamps: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...om+clamp+sourc
--Rusty's TRex CF and aluminum tube strength tests: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=2293 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...f#post10242432
--OMM's CF tubing tests with wood inserts and Gorilla or Sumo glue: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=2211
--Method for adding doweling to CF tubing: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...4#post10637944
--24mm (1in) square aluminum tubing: 8.08g @ $.16/in -http://www.homedepot.com/h_d1/N-5yc1vZ1xhc/R-100337876/h_d2/ProductDisplay?langId=-1&storeId=10051&catalogId=10053
--19mm (.75in) square Dragon Plate: 1.9g @ $3.65/in -http://www.dragonplate.com/
--16mm x 461mm TRex 500 tail booms: 1.9g/in @ $.16/in -Various EBay and other venders.
--15mm x .4mm (5/8 x.016in) square Towel bar: 2.35g/in @ $.20/in -Lowes, Home Depot. Note: weights can vary with brand.
--13mm x .3mm (1/2 x.011in) Aluminum tubing: 1.2g/in @ $.13/in -http://www.hobbylinc.com/htm/k+s/k+s9413.htm and http://www.metalsdepot.com/products/...ge=tube&LimAcc=
--13mm x 1.5mm (1/2 x .0625) Aluminum square tubing -http://www.hobbylinc.com/htm/k+s/k+s9413.htm and http://www.metalsdepot.com/products/...ge=tube&LimAcc=
--12mm CF tubing: 1.8g @ $.28 inch - http://www.goodwinds.com/merch/list....ultrudedcarbon , http://www.carbonfibertubeshop.com/small%20tubing.html
--12mm x .3mm (.472in x .011in) TRex 450 tail booms: 1.3g @ $.15/in -Various Ebay and other venders. *Note: Insert tight-fitting 1 1/2-2" length of 3/8" wooden dowels for strength at the center plate. This is optional at the motor end as the stress on the mount is not as great.
--11mm x .762mm (.433in x .03in) T6 aluminum tent tubing: 2g @ $.16/in - http://www.questoutfitters.com/tent_...m#TENT%20POLES
--10mm square CF/w round hole: 1.49g @ $.23/in -http://www.hobbycity.com/hobbycity/s...ube_750x10.5mm
--10mm "Slow-Stick": 1.5g @ $.19/in -EBay, and http://www.bphobbies.com/view.asp?id...6&pid=NGWSV376
--10mm arm from MK shop 215mm long with holes pre-drilled no paint: 2.12g @ $0.81/in -various MK shops
--10mm aluminum DIY shop: 2.21g @ $ 0.03/in -Milan
--8mm Square CF with Spruce inserts: 1.1g @ $.32/in -http://www.hobby-lobby.com/carbonfiber.htm
--7.5mm aluminum DIY shop: 1.83g @ $ 0.03/in -Milan
--Aluminum square tubing from discarded roof TV antennas - free
--Aluminum tubing from common flag poles sets, ~18.6mm x .65mm (.73in x .03in) 3.6g/in, free - ~$6 for replacement pole sets. www.valleyforgeflag.com, Lowes, Walmart, Home Depot.
--Aluminum tubing from shower curtain rods. ~25mm x .65mm (.98in x .03in) 3.2g/in. free - $10ea. Lowes, Walmart, Home Depot, example Melard No. 336.
--CF arrow shafts for very small lightweight quad builds: numerous sports and variety store venders, ~$4ea.
--Knitting needles come in many diameters and lengths and are made out of aluminum tubing: ~$4 for two.
--Vinyl rods from window shades: Home Depot SKU 03654472, $3.87, yields 3 x 20in arms. 5.1g/in & ~$.11/in. ...or free if thrown out
--Wood: pine, basswood, spruce. 6-20mm sizes are available at hobby stores and Lowes and Home Depot. ~.10-15/in, or cut your own to size for even less. Pros = cheap; Cons = usually too flexible and heavy for most larger size models and will break easier than aluminum or CF.
Battery Information:
--TIP 1 **WARNING!: The Lipos we use in RC are only safe when we adhere to proper charging and safety procedures. Properly dispose of puffed or damaged Lipos. These will burn your house down and cause serious bodily injury if they ignite! They can and will produce flames and shrapnel with over 1500F/815C temperatures! Frequently inspect the condition of your Lipos to include any cracked connecter solder joints or loose or damaged shrink wrap that is protecting the wires. See this Lipo fire video!!
--1s lipo overcharge danger test by Benedikt: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=2160396
--Battery University: http://batteryuniversity.com/
--Carrying LIPOs on commercial aircraft: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=788273 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...9#post16688169
--Complete Guide to Lithium Polymer Batteries and LiPo Failure Reports by Hoppy - Part 1
--Complete Guide to LiPo Batteries and Failure Reports by Hoppy - Part II.
--Jesolins Lipo 101: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ns#post9983321
--Lipo Basics: http://sites.google.com/site/tjinguytech/charging-how-tos/lipo-terminology
--Lipo Danger and Risks in 2012: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ht=lipo+safety:
--Safely disposing of puffed or old tired Lipos: http://www.rctoys.com/pr/2007/07/06/...battery-packs/
--The Six Deadly Myths of Lithium Polymer Batteries by Bob Burtis: http://www.jerseycoastrcclub.org/The...b%20Burtis.htm
Beginner/Noob Info Threads:
--TIP 1: Also see and study the Safety and Flight Training sections.
--TIP 2: See the Flight training section.
--TIP 3: Get a cheapo quad to start with for training. For example a ~$45 WLToys V929 19cm diameter or smaller 12cm diameter V939 quadrocopter for training and flipping practice. There are about a dozen others in this mini and micro catagory and the list is continuing to grow.
Check here for: Micro quads comparisons 101
--Digitalduino Quadrocopter How-to build guide by Sirbow2: http://dduino.blogspot.com/2012/04/q...build-log.html
--Kinderkram's $150 quadrocopter build: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1334190
--New to multirotors? Start here, Multicopter 101 by N3m1s1s: http://multikopter.co.uk/forum/index...lticopter-101/ , http://n3m1s1s.webs.com/multirotor101.htm
--Quad Building Tutorial for Beginners with Videos by Bobepine: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1738108
Camera mounts, gimbals and landing gear:
--Brushless motor gimbal by Alexmos: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ushless+gimbal
--Ecilop Easy: a camera mount gimbal stabilization sytem: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1640731
--Landing gear and skid setups thread by Hamburger: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1424537
--Landing gear and camera mount by CNCheli for X650 and others ~$50 plus shipping: http://www.cnchelicopter.com/servlet...rts-one/Detail
--Landing gear and camera mount open source CNC thread by Zirt57: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1363009 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...0#post15599845
--Landing Gear and camera mount by Infinity Hobby ~$110: http://www.infinity-hobby.com/main/p...oducts_id=4758
--Landing gear and camera mount by Rusty: http://www.shop.aglhobbiesllc.com/La...Camera-Mounts/
--Pool Noodle camera mount by OMM: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=2941
--Sponge camera mount by Jesolins: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...56#post9290010
--Super Simple Gimbal - SSG - Poor man's gimbal by Crezzee: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1793759
Coding and programming:
--Introducing BradWii - Open Source Multi-Copter Software
--Arduino forum Kalman filtering on Wii Nunchuk and Motion Plus: http://www.arduino.cc/cgi-bin/yabb2/...num=1248889032 and http://www.arduino.cc/cgi-bin/yabb2/...num=1248889032
--STM32F4 ARM programming: http://jeremyherbert.net/get/stm32f4_getting_started , http://code.google.com/p/stm32flash/
--Teach yourself C in 24 hours: http://aelinik.free.fr/c/
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We now pause for a very nice post from Josh The MEGA Index part 2/4 will continue in Post #3
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Old Aug 18, 2009, 12:42 PM
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Always wear clean underpants
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Now back to this amazing resourse list...

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Old Aug 18, 2009, 12:55 PM
Tri-Quad-Hexa-Octo-copters!!
United States, TX, San Antonio
Joined Feb 2007
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Hi Josh,
Put it under self-build please.
Cheers,
Jim
Quote:
Originally Posted by Joshbb
ooh thats very cool Jim! what catagory would a tricopter that uses only gyros be under in your poll?
cheers, Josh
*Edit: This was a workaround to the 600,000 character per post RCG limit

__________________________________________________ _______________________________________
We now return you to our regular program: MEGA Index part 2/4 continued!
__________________________________________________ ____________________________________
ESC recommendations and converting ESCs to I2c and to faster PWM:
--TIP 1: ESCs perform better if kept in cooling airflow. Rusty's ESC cooling tests
--TIP 2: For multicopter use and good performance the standard ESC's must have a manually configurable throttle range calibration for the best performance. Do not use ESCs that have "auto-throttle calibration". They will not work well on multicopters and will cause excessive drift, uneven motor startups and unequal power.
--TIP 3: Make a simple header PCB to throttle calibrate all the ESC's at once; by Witespy: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=678
--TIP 4: Set the standard ESCs for brake and governor mode off, LVC off if available, start = normal, soft cut-off, NiMh, low voltage. *Yes you did read it correctly Set NiMh even though we use lipos! Reason: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=1411 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...8&postcount=32). The caution to keep in mind even when you set NiMh is that it does a voltage test when you first power on, so you must always use a full lipo or it can still cutoff if it drops below the calculated percentage of power on voltage. The best practice is to use the FCB's built-in alarm if it has one or separate lipo balance charge connector type alarm and then set your Tx to alarm two minutes before the lipo alarm sounds that you can carefully find out during a low hover battery flight test. The reason is you want to have at least enough reserve power for a safe landing. It takes a lot of power to arrest a descent, especially if you have a heavy model. When a lipo alarm sounds it can sometimes mean "land now!". Older and weaker lipos should be retired early from being used in expensive multicopter builds. For motor timing, you won't notice a huge difference between low, medium and high timing as this setting is for motor efficiency. If your motors stutter when starting or click excessively, and the motor timing is set to high, then drop it to medium or low. Most leave it on medium timing with good results. A few ESCs have another setting called PWM Frequency such as the AEO ESCs, Mystery Blue and Red Series and YGE ESCs that can be set to 16khz vs.the typical 8Khz. The 16Khz setting on ESC's will eliminate the ringing that annoys most Gents at the 8Khz setting.
--TIP 5: Be absolutely sure to do the ESC throttle calibration. The ESC throttle calibration is very important for the best stable multicopter performance. ESCs that have auto throttle calibration are not suitable for multicopters. For good performance in multicopter use, the choice of standard off-the-shelf ESCs must have the feature of manual throttle calibration. This only needs to be done once during the initial setup. This is usually accomplished by connecting each ESC to an Rx channel 3 throttle and then powering the ESC with motors attached and props off, then powering the Tx with the throttle stick full up, wait for a beep, then throttle stick full down.
--TIP 6: Listen to your ESCs! After power on after the arming beep if they beep once for each of the number of cells in your lipo, i.e. 3 times for 3s, then you should be thinking to yourself...."self...why am I hearing 3 beeps indicating my lipo cell count when I know that I should have set my multicopter ESCs to NiMh to make sure my ESCs do not cutoff power and cause a flip"...When you power on most ESCs that are set to Lipo Low Voltage Cutoff, they will do a beep for each lipo cell. As it states in Tip 4 Lipo is an incorrect setting as they should be set to NiMH for multicopter use to help prevent flips that are caused by the ESCs individually going into LVC. If you set the ESCs to NiMh like you are supposed to do with multicopter ESCs so they do not cutoff and cause a crash, then you will not hear these beeps http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...3#post19584492
--TIP 7: Braid or twist power distribution wires to minimize Rf emissions. Also see the Wiring info for multicopters section, particularly TIP 6 for EMI issues that affect the compass and magnometers. Info here: http://www.stefanv.com/rcstuff/qf200406.html Use only the lightest gauge wire necessary to carry the current load required for your quad to save weight. Examples: A quad with total ~30W hover: Lipo to wire harness 16g, ESC wire harness 18g, harness to board 20g. Design your harness as light as possible if using any fuses or hardware in order to save weight too. There has been no problem running either the ESC pos/neg power wires or the wire to the motor in lengths of up to 40cm. Electrical Engineers recommend adding a 220uf-440uf xxV low ESR electrolytic capacitor between the +/- ESC power wires after that length and every 10cm after that in order to minimize ripple current which can damage ESCs over an undefined extended period of time. The xxV value should be at least double the voltage being used to power the ESC, i.e. 4s use a 35v value for the capacitor. You will use less wire and therefore have less weight if you run the power wires out to the ESCs. The ESCs will perform better when cooled by the airflow of the props. Longer motor side lead length does effect the back emf detection of the controller, so the longer the leads, the less accurately and efficiently the motor will be run.
So if you need to lengthen wires in a specific installation, doing it between battery and ESC is the safest approach and in a multicopter application has the additional benefit of offering cooling air from the prop wash. For additional technical info see Rusty's ESC testing in in the motor section above and the "Extending brushless cables thread" particularly the posts made by Patrick del Castillo of Castle Creations(Patrick) and Whanderson(Bill P.), a NASA engineer and this thread on ESC capacitance recommendations: http://endless-sphere.com/forums/vie...22194&start=45.
--TIP 8: It is recommended as a best practice for multicopters not to run ESC 5v BECs power wires in parallel. They will run hotter, be less efficient and can potentially induce noise into multicopter flight controller boards causing performance issues. This applies to both switching and linear type ESC BECs. Best multicopter practice if you decide to use an ESC BEC instead of a separate UBEC/SBEC: Only connect one 5v ESC power wire. Remove the other ESC 5v wires from the plastic connector by lifting the tab and then shrink wrapping the wire for protection. Do keep and connect the other ESC ground servo connections as removing them can cause performance issues with some ESCs and flight controllers. Multicopter ESC 5v lines and reliability 101, http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=2146
--TIP 9: It is a best practice to use a separate high quality Vreg/BEC for powering flight controller boards and for camera mount servos instead of the ESC BECs. The reasons are that if you do use the ESC BEC that will cause that ESC to run hotter than the others on the multicopter with potential performance degradations. Secondly if you use the same Vreg to power the flight controller and camera servos instead of a separate one for each, the servos could potentially go bad and draw enough amps to cause a flight controller brown-out failure and result in a crash. Notes: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...7&postcount=17 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...0#post18782461 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=2010 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...2#post18960509 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=916 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=919
--TIP 10: ESC recommendations for standard PWM: Bidproduct HW25a (www.bidproduct.com), eRC (http://www.hobby-lobby.com/erc_speed...ls_470_ctg.htm), DYS ESCs, Castle Creations Phoenix with upgraded v4.01 or greater multicopter firmware, ExceedRC Volcano/Proton series, HKSuperSimple (the programmable type not the basic), HK Blue Series, HK F10, F20, F30, F40(all HK F-series are excellent for DIY fast PWM firmware upgrading), HobbyWing, Mystery Blue series, www.quadroufo.com 30a, Maytech Harrier-Supreme Series(these are the same as HW Blue series at 3x the cost) http://montorc.com/MT30ABEC.aspx, RCTimer (www.rctimer.com), Towerpro, Turnigy Plush, YGE, ZTW. *Note: The following ESCs are known to be poor performers when used on multicopter's due to some or all of the following issues: the lack of manual endpoint calibration and the use of automatic endpoint calibration, timing lags due to throttle smoothing, firmware that is optimized for helicopter use is not compatible with multicopter flight controllers, low update rates, non-linear throttle curves. The ESC's with those features will cause multicopters to have drifting and oscillation issues. Again the following have been tested and will not perform well on multicopters and are therefore not recommended for multicopter use: Castle Creations versions except for the Phoenix modified with the v401 or greater firmware,, Dynam Denton. Hercules, Scorpion Commander, Thunderbird.
--TIP 11: For faster ESC PWM update rates for use on most current flight controllers that output ~400Hz update rates, it is recommended to flash Quax/SimonK ESC firmware to take advantage of the higher performance. List of ESC Specs For Simonk FW Flash here. Watch this ESC flashing instructional video. You can DIY per the Fast PWM links such as Nek's SimonK fast PWM firmware thread, or order the ESC's specifying that you want the fast PWM loaded from Ken in the USA at www.quadroufo.com , or Timecop in Japan at www.abusemark.com , or Dan in China at http://www.multircshop.com/site/inde...product_id=627., Flitelab in Canada: http://www.flitelab.com/OnlineStore/...hedSimonK.aspx , Saabguyspg in Canada: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1662075
--Afro ESC multicopter series recommended by SimonK and Timecop: RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1948974 , Store: http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/s...Firmware_.html
--Conversion thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=766589,
--ESC32 by Bill Nesbit, ~$40ea: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1679226
--Faster PWM mod for standard ESCs: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=675 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...m#post15540574 and http://qc-copter.de/wiki/index.php?t...ushless-Regler and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post15451843 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=7003 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=1349 and http://www.multiwii.com/forum/viewto...8e44a703793b51
--Fast PWM firmware flashing GUI by Chatch15117: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1577773
--Fast PWM firmware flashing using Lazyzero's KKtool: http://lazyzero.de/kkflashtool , Lazyzero's RCG post http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=2386
--Faster PWM mod how-to for RCTimer/Turnigy/Hobbywing ESC DIY Firmware Flashing by Nek: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1513678
--High Refresh ESCs thread by Saabguyspg: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1584629
--I2c to PWM converter by Arthur: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...k#post14181752
--I2c to PWM converter by Flash RC: http://www.flashrc.com/flyboard/6633...4_6_voies.html
--I2c to PWM converter by I0Pan: http://forum.mikrokopter.de/topic-11206.html
--I2c conversion using Arduino by Rusty: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1039852
--I2c to PWM converter by William Thielicke: http://shrediquette.blogspot.com/201...erter-and.html
--I2c to PWM converter by Timecop: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1399162
--OpenPilot flashable "RapidESC" ESC database spreadsheet by TomSn0w: http://wiki.openpilot.org/display/Doc/RapidESC+Database
--Renatopub's ESC firmware written in C: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1384442 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1349333
--RCTimer/Turnigy/Hobbywing ESC DIY Firmware Flashing by Nek: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1513678
--Quax's low cost ESC I2c conversion info and firmware: http://translate.google.com/translat...hl=en&ie=UTF-8 and Quax' aka Bernhard Konze's Hobby Page: http://translate.google.com/translat...hl=en&ie=UTF-8
--SimonK fast PWM firmware: https://github.com/sim-/tgy
--SimonK Reversable ESC - Think 3D QuadCopter
--Testing ESC update responsiveness: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...55&postcount=9
Flight Training for Multicopters:
--TIP 1: For easier multicopter control when you are a new flyer, the better Tx's have a menu that allows you to set Exponential which decreases the stick sensitivity around the center, set that to about -40(Futaba type Tx's)/+40(JR type Tx's) on your pitch(ch2/mode2) and roll(ch1/mode2) channels. There is also a setting for dual rates. Set this at about 70% for pitch and roll. The trim steps for most Tx's is set to 4 per click of your digital trim button. Set this value to 1 for channels 1/roll, 2/pitch and 4/yaw for much finer control of your trim.
--TIP 2: Most modern Tx's have a way to set a throttle curve even in ACRO mode. Set the throttle curve for a flatter throttle response around your hover stick position for finer hover throttle control.
--AeroSim-RC has a decent simulation of a Mikrokopter with FPV views. The download is free, but times out at 2 minutes. ~$100 for full version: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=290
--FMS free flight simulator and multicopter models: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=2770
--Lil-Draganflyer Flight Training: http://www.rctoys.com/pdf/Lil-Dragan...t-Training.pdf
--Multicopter flight loop training by Warthox: mwc quad - stick video mode 2 slow motion (1 min 25 sec) and Warthox Flight School thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1428309
--Multicopter flight training by DMala: Witespy VC450 Quad Control Practice, 5 Feb 2012 (10 min 18 sec)
Frames:
--TIP 1: Famous quote pertinent to commercial frames: "Light...Strong...Cheap: Pick any two."
--TIP 2: Never be tempted to fly your multicopter without a roll cage or protective cover over the delicate electronics!! It is a well known and completely tested fact that multicopters know when the electronics are not properly protected and will choose that moment to flip and crash upside down like buttered toast, subjecting the flight controller board to serious damage. You have been warned!!...
--1Hoch4 frames ~$63: http://www.1hoch4.net/shop/index.php?cPath=24
--A Vertical View Tricopter frames: http://www.averticalview.com/tricopter.html
--Arm / Boom / Motor mounts /clamps: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...om+clamp+sourc
--Armattan frames and multicopters by Bobepine aka Chris $45 and up: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...light=armattan
--BadgerFly Products Polycarbonate protective domes: http://badgerfly.com/index.php?route=common/home
--Blackout Frames ~$100-380: http://www.minihquad.com/frames
--BlueSyRC lasercut wood frame parts ~$30 and up: http://www.blueskyrc.com/index.php?m...=index&cPath=5
--Dex Quad frames: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1372462 and http://www.kkmulticopter.com/index.p...d=88&Itemid=61
--DIYDrones Ardurocopter frame: ~$TBD http://www.diydrones.com/profiles/bl...age=3#comments
--ECKS frames: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/member.php?u=441344 , ecks frame (warthox video)
--Effekt Modell: http://www.effektmodell.de/index.php...th=814_815_818
--Filipinto's open source hexa frame and camera mount with cad files: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...9#post17379695
--Fireslayer26's quad frame list: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1288846
--FPVManuals Frames: www.fpvmanuals.com , New QAV500 FPV Quad Frame: http://www.fpvmanuals.com/2012/05/01/qav500/
--Gaui upgrade frame at R/C Dude Hobbies ~$60: http://www.rcdude.com/servlet/the-19...Upgrade/Detail
--HobbyKing Frames and kits: http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/s...idCategory=502
--Homemade quad center piece body parts: http://skymixer.engineering.free.fr/...eral&Itemid=48
--Hoverthings frames: http://www.hoverthings.com/catalog/
--JakubJ's KKMulticopter frames: ~$65 www.quadframe.com , http://www.kkmulticopter.com/
--JoeCNC2006 frames: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1329898 , and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1334018
--LA Heli Nanocopter frames: ~$150-$350 http://www.laheli.com/web/article.ph...kopter&lang=EN
--Mikrocontroller Shop: https://www.mikrocontroller.com/inde...2c2be65280c4a5
--Openkopterframe open source CNC files at SouceForge.net by Augen: http://openkopterframe.svn.sourceforge.net/
--Powerframe.de: http://translate.google.com/translat...ate.google.com
--Quadframe LLC: http://quadframe.myshopify.com/
--Ramsey Innovations: Small Carbon Fiber frames "Carbon Nano V2" and also available in ARTF FPV, ~$80-$700: http://www.ramseyinnovations.com/
--Rusty's frames some with free replacement warranty: http://www.shop.aglhobbiesllc.com/ Thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1469157
--SnapQuad frame using clever interlocking design. ~$60 plus shipping and $6 for replacement parts: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1368970 , http://photoshipone.com/zencart/inde...roducts_id=211 , http://photoshipone.com/zencart/inde...roducts_id=210
--Spark's multicopter canopies and parts: http://parkflyerplastics.com/cart/in...cd04c6f99abb1e , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1589171
--SuperDave's Frames: Karbonic-X Frame: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...0#post18489995 , Evader Pro palm quad frames for the Alien Saucer: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=995133
--United Hobbies $14.99 wooden V1 quad frame: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1386142 , http://hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store...dProduct=16583
--Widelec's BambooCopter polycarbonate frames ~$50: http://www.bambucopter.com/shop/ , RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1540127
Glossary:
-- A very nice Glossary is at Micro's Aeroquad website: http://aeroquad.com/showwiki.php?tit...ms&redirect=no
GPS Information:
--TIP 1 **WARNING!: Do not use GPS position hold or return to home when flying indoors on multicopters! The GPS signal indoors is not reliable without an expensive GPS signal repeater. Using GPS indoors can result in random position data that can cause your model to move suddenly and unexpectedly. Indoor flight use of GPS is not approved and can be dangerous!
--TIP 2: Jesolins GPS Installation TIPs 101
--TIP 3: Also see the Wiring info for multicopters section
--GPS-e 1g GPS by Dave1993: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ghlight=1g+gps
--GPS capable multicopter flight controllers:
- Aeroquad/Arducopter/ArduPirate/RCTimer ArduFlyer(based on Arduino) ~$130-$250 (position hold, return to home, waypoints),
- AutoQuad ~$400 (GPS Position hold and return to home and waypoints, auto-land),
- DJI Wookong-M ~$1000(position hold and return to home with auto land add $2500 for waypoint features),
- DJI NAZA with GPS ~$450(position hold, and return to home with auto land),
- FY-91Q ~$400(position hold, return to home),
- Gaui INS add on for GPS $800(position hold, return to home),
- HoverFly Pro ~$450 with GPS add-on +~$450(position hold, return to home),
- KK Minso Flycam Blackbord/Naviboard with GPS ~$550(position hold, return to home),
- Mikrokopter with NAVI/MK3Mag/MKGPS/MKBLCs ~$1500(position hold, return to home with altitude, waypoints, auto land, carefree),
- Multiwiicopter various flight controllers ~$150-$250(position hold, return to home with altitude, waypoints, auto land, carefree),
- Rabbit ~$150(position hold, return to home, auto-land, carefree)
- UAVXARM32F4 ~$135 (position hold, return to home with altitude, waypoints with altitude and delay, polar and cartesian point of reference aka carefree, selectable point of focus),
- UAVP-NG ~$600(position hold, return to home, waypoints),
- Xaircraft 650 ~$650(position hold, return to home)
- ZeroUAV YS-X6 ~$1130(position hold, return to home)
Lipo Alarms:
--Microscream DIY: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=221018
--Various Ebay: http://shop.ebay.com/?_from=R40&_trk...All-Categories
Locator devices:
--TIP 1: Never mount a buzzer alarm on, or point it toward the flight control board. It can cause poor flight controller board performance. Mount it at least 5 inches away if possible. Use shielded wire ot the buzzer and do not run the wires over the accelerometer or gyros.
--TIP 2: Always fly with a locator device that is range tested and operational. It is wise to use a separate and secured battery for the locater device as batteries have been known to eject or be damaged in a "hard-landing". Multiple locater devices are recommended for redundancy.
--TIP 3: Attach a sealed note with your phone number and a reward offer just in case someone finds it to give them incentive to return it. Be advised that if you model causes damages that you will be liable and locatable too. This should motivate you to always fly in a safe area away from people and property.
--Beacon which uses an inexpensive FRS/GMRS UHF transceiver by Fmkit: http://www.fmtv.us/rf_beacon.html and http://fpv-community.com/forum/showthread.php?tid=81 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1274173
--BIY 433Hz Beacon Instructable: http://www.instructables.com/id/433-...acon/?ALLSTEPS
--Bluetooth 4.0 and applications Locator devices for Cell phone, Tablet, PC: http://www.ebay.com/sch/i.html?_trks...+lost&_sacat=0
--Build your own Radio Lost Model Locator by Smet: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1521561 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1548079
--Communications Specialists tracking system: http://www.com-spec.com/rcplane/index.html
--Distance-RC $25 long range 400-470Mhz use with common walkie-talkie radio: http://distance-rc.com/store/index.p...te=common/home
--DIY GPS locator: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1317442#post16203843
--FrSky Rx tracker solutions by Daemon
--GPS Tracker APRS by Aadamson: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1488481
--iCELL LiPO Battery Monitor for iPhone/iPad by MelihK
--Loc8tor: store: http://www.loc8tor.com/ , RCG forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...9#post10751721
--LoCATor: store: http://www.com-spec.com/thecatlocator/prod_manuals.htm
--LOMA, BIY Lost Model Alarm by RC-Cam: http://www.rc-cam.com/lma.htm
--OLRB: Open Long Range Beacon -low cost tracker by Dave1993
--Proximity Anti-Lost Alarm with adjustable range from 0-25M/75ft
--The Plane Locator: http://www.theplanelocator.com/rcplane/index.html
--Super lost model beeper by Geofrancis
--Trackduino GPS APRS Tracker: http://www.trackuino.org/2011/01/how...ino-board.html
--Water activated key fob flotation device: http://www.water-buoy.com/
--XBee/GPS based locator: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=993165
Mikrokopter helpful info:
--Arthur P's MK FCB v1.0-1.3 camera gyro pitch/roll stabilization HEF4017 solution: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...m#post12516425 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...7#post12520287 and http://forum.mikrokopter.de/topic-9248-2.html
--GPS performance info: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=7381
--GPS MK demo by Richard Brashley done in 2009. He had it so finely tuned that it would come back in position even without GPS! : http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=5374 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=5385
--Mikrokopter Holger ESC OMM fuse shunt and 13brv3's 14a mods: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...d#post13591257 and Jesolins 20g wire shunt mod with 15a mini-fuse: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...d#post13969083
--Mikrokopter Holger ESC Red LED error codes: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...ostcount=12997
--Mikrokopter high starting msl altitude barometer fix (for those living/operating above ~1300M) by Nicoleto: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...2#post13100652
--Mikrokopter I2c failure fix by OMM: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...c#post12479444
--Mikrokopter motor and prop balance test firmware by FredericG using the onboard accelerometer: http://www.mikrokopter.de/ucwiki/en/VibrationTest
--Mikrokopter parameter thread by OMM: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1141571
--Mikrokopter parameter WIKI: http://mikrokopter.de/ucwiki/en/MKTools-Setup
--Mikrokopter PID info by Brashley: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=3824 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...51#post9935851
--Mikrokopter Tools helpful explanation of setup and terms and values in English: https://sites.google.com/site/mikrok...advanced-setup
--Mikrokopter yaw issues checklist 101 Also see Wiring section Tip 6 below on checking for excessive magnetic flux from wiring and some different lipo brands.
--Va3mw's MK prop balancing technique using the MKTools accelerometer readings: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=627
Mini and Micro and Nano Multicopters:
--TIP 1: These Mini(<30cm-15cm) and Micro(<15cm-6cm) and Nano(<6cm) sized multicopters are great for inexpensive flight training and general fun. The micro sized typically perform well inside and outside with winds up to about 15kts.
--TIP 2: CAUTION: Get in the practice of always checking your lipo polarity at least three times every time to match the model you are flying, before you plug them together! These mini and micro models do not have standardized polarity. The Walkera micros, and many others are reversed polarity from the Nine Eagles and HISky and Heli-Max for example. After market lipos and LOSI Mini-T/Walkera connectors need to be checked for correct polarity too. Reversed polarity will damage the flight controller!
--1s micro/mini brushed quadcopter specifications and performance data by Woodsturning
--Best Deal: Hubsan X4 H107 BNF $28.08 shipped!! (post #1 updated) by Bangkomit
--Balancing the Pocket Ultra Micro Quads's 45mm Gemfan and other micro props 101
--Balancing small propellers by SebastianJ
--Balancing micro pops technique by Graham Stabler
--Batteries and charging thread for Micro RTF
--Blade mQX/Mini Quad Paper Canopy's by HJMDally
--Connecting and disconnecting those pesky micro LOSI connectors by MassiveOverkill
--Coreless motor bottom fix video
--DIY "Hubsan" RF module by Midelic
--Easter Egg shell type canopies by Swilson50
--Estes Proto X/Hubsan Nano Q4 accelerometer calibration and drift correction 101
--Estes Proto X/Hubsan Nano Q4 Tips for a stable hover 101
--Estes Proto X OEM USB charger tests 101
--Flight controller gyro only and gyro accelerometer 3-axis and 6 axis references 101
--FlySky, Turnigy, Eurgle, Tx protocol compatible mini and micro multicopters 101
--Foam canopies for Mini and Micro quads 101
--Gluing micro props on motor shafts 101
--How to replace MOSFETs on Mini an Micro Multicopter flight controllers by Carcynic
--Hubsan X4 H107C and H107D SD card 101
--Improving Hubsan X4 flight performance 101
--Ladybird/Hubsan Motors CW and CCW wire colors for micros 101
--Lipo Charging Safety 101
--Links to Mini and Micro quads by John_Edwards
--LOSI connector mods for easier plugging and unplugging 101
--LOSI locking tab removal for easier connections by MassiveOverkill
--LOSI micro T-connector for mini and micro multicopters
--LOSI connector sanding for easy removal by Pancari
--Micro prop removal made easy using wire cutting pliers 101
--Micro motor saver guards
--Micro quads comparisons 101
--Micro quad OEM and Turnigy Nano-Tech lipo tests 101
--Micro and Mini brushed motor life expectancy 101
--Micro and mini 1s brushed quadcopter specifications and performance data by Woodsturning
--Mini and Micro antenna length 101
--Mini and micro multicopter motor lubricating 101
--Mini and Micro multicopter trim issues checklist 101
--Multicopter Principles 101
--Nunchuk controller for Hubsan protocol models by Midelec
--Prop straightening using boiling water by indoorheli
--Prop comparisons: U816, Walkera LB and MJX X100
--Removing and replacing micro props 101
--Replacement MOSFETs for Micro Multicopters: Walkera, Hubsan, WLToys 101
--RC model protocol and transceiver database
--The big list of small canopies
--Walkera QR Ladybird Tx and Magic Cube MTC-01 Normal/Acro mode change 101
--X4 caution on removing and reinserting motors 101
Motor and ESC Testing and Recommendations for Multicopters:
--TIP 1: Check the push-pull end play of every motor before every flight to insure it is at least .5mm. If it is tighter than that, heat expansion could make the bearings bind, over-heat and eventually fail. Too loose is better than too tight! Re-check after every flight especially after "hard-landings"!
--TIP 2: Caution: Do not run brushless motors without props at full throttle for any length of time! Doing so can potentially damage the motor. There is possibility of melting the enamel on the wires due to no air flow and loosening the magnets due to high centrifugal forces on the motor housing. This might not show up immediately as damage, but could also decrease the life of the motor. If the wires or the motor short during a non-recommended full throttle motor test without props, then the ESC could be damaged as well. If there are no props on the motors as it should be during an initial setup test, it is best to only blip the throttle to test your connections and motor direction.
--TIP 3: If you need to cut a motor shaft, make sure you protect the motor from getting metal filings inside the bell housing by sticking a piece of tape or something like plastic Saran Wrap over the shaft and motor. A piece of thin ~4 inch square piece of cardboard with double sided carpet tape stuck to the side facing the shaft to be cut will safely catch the filings.
--TIP 4: Estimators for electric motor and prop combinations: http://adamone.rchomepage.com/calc_motor.htm and http://www.ecalc.ch/xcoptercalc_e.htm?ecalc and http://personal.osi.hu/fuzesisz/strc_eng/index.htm and http://www.peakeff.com/MotorDetails....ID=2753&v=10.5 and http://www.drivecalc.de/ and http://scriptasylum.com/rc_speed/index.html
--TIP 5: There are many good motors recommended in the links below. I would suggest that if you are new to multicopters, whether you have a hobby or commercial interest, that you start out with some of the better cheaper $10-$20ea brushless motors such as BPHobbies, Hextronic/HXT, KDA, RCTimer, TowerPro, Turnigy, QuadroUFO etc. The higher end $40-$100ea Avroto, AXI, Cobra, Hacker, Huffman Magnetics, MK, Pulso, Scorpion, Robbe/Roxxy, and Tiger, etc. motors with larger and sometimes three bearings are great to keep vibrations to a minimum, but expect that when you are learning to fly multicopters that you will be using the motors as landing gear occasionally. Those $100 motors then become $5 motors, so it is best to learn on the cheaper motors. Be sure to buy spares in either case!
--TIP 6: Bullet connectors have been a frequent cause of motors stopping and crashes in multicopters. First look at the spring on the tip of the bullet connector. If you are able to spin it on the shaft, then these are known to eventually cause glitches and failures. A bit of solder on the tip to hold this spring will solve that problem. Second is the soldering of wires in the connectors. Make sure the solder is good and the wire is tight. If the wires in the connectors are the lacquer or magnet wires from the motors, then I highly recommend that you solder a small length of 20-22gauge multi-stranded silicone wire between the magnet wire and the built connector. The reason to do this is because when the magnet wires are soldered directly into the bullet connectors they will eventually break and cause a failure or partial failure or glitch. Check the connectors as part of your pre and post-flight checks for cracked solder and loose wires and any carbon build up. Use clear packing tape to hold the connectors together and for easy visual inspections. Note: For the ultimate multicopter reliability I recommend that you solder the wires directly and do not use bullet connectors at all.
--TIP 7: Look and Listen. Motors are good about notifying you of their health status. For all pre and post flight inspections, listen for any rough or grinding noises indicating bearing issues, check the motor shafts for true running, make sure wires have some slack near the motor and are not pulled or stretched and the solder and wires in the connectors if used are good. Check their temperature's after a flight. If they are too hot to touch then they are either over-propped, or have a mechanical or tilt problem to fix. Observe that the motors all start and stop at about the same time. Any difference could be a mechanical problem such as a bearing or a motor bell housing that has been pressed down too tight on the bearings. A motor that stutter-starts or has an occasional glitch or twitch in-flight could be caused by a bad motor wire winding or a bullet connector (see TIP 6), or bad soldering. Always fix these problems before another flight and you will greatly decrease the chance of a motor failure.
--TIP 8: For bearing and bushing reliability and maintenance I recommend using Liquid Wrench Dry Lubricant with CERFLON® which is an improved PTFE(aka TEFLON®) on an hourly schedule. It will not attract dust and dirt like other lubricants and seems to keep the motors running quiet and cooler. To apply use a toothpick or pin and dip it in some of the lube that has been sprayed on a plastic sheet, then apply to the motor shaft ends. http://www.liquidwrench.com/pressroo...detail.asp?r=7 , or http://www.grainger.com/Grainger/LIQ...3737-_-Generic NOTE: Do not use penetrating oils like WD-40 to lubricate brushed or brushless motors. The chemicals they use can soften and remove the lacquer on the armature wiring and cause shorts and motor failure.
--TIP 9: Also see the Vibration and balancing solutions section in this index.
--TIP 10: Multicopters typically use direct drive outrunner motors. I do suggest that you copy frame size, motor size and Kv and props for your flight controller from other successful user's projects. Generally larger heavier 40-80 diameter >1Kg/3lb multicopters use 10-18in props and Kv ranges of 300 to 900Kv, smaller lighter 20-40cm diameter ~500g/17oz-1Kg use 5-9in props and 1000-2200Kv, mini 15-30cm diameter ~ 70g/2.5oz use 10k-30kKv typically 4-5in props and geared coreless brushless motors and micro <15cm diameter ~30g/1oz use <3in props and direct drive 10k-50kKv coreless brushed motors.
--Brushless Motor Timing Info by Ken Meyers: http://homepage.mac.com/kmyersefo/timing/timing.htm
--Drive Calculator: A DC motor analysis and the computation of the complete power system for electrically powered model aircraft: http://www.drivecalc.de/
--Estimators for electric motor and prop combinations: http://adamone.rchomepage.com/calc_motor.htm and http://personal.osi.hu/fuzesisz/strc_eng/index.htm and http://www.peakeff.com/MotorDetails....ID=2753&v=10.5 and http://www.drivecalc.de/
--Kv testing. BTW, Kv is RPM per Volt. It is actually correctly stated as K sub v (Kv), not "kilovolt" (kV): Dr. Kiwi Kv post on Aeotech Kv meter: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...v#post13013391 , and Kv winding and testing info: http://www.bavaria-direct.co.za/models/motor_info.htm , and more Kv testing info: http://www.modelflying.co.uk/forums/...s.asp?th=39749
--Mechanical Lift Force vs Electrical Power: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1253736
--Motor Database by Holco: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1388583
--Motor end play adjustment by Jesolins: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...01#post9870043
--Motor re-winding and Kv info: http://www.bavaria-direct.co.za/models/motor_info.htm
--Motor shaft removal and replacement how-to by Jesolins: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...1&postcount=27
--Motor shaft reversal how-to: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...5#post15064335 and http://www.machinegrid.com/2009/11/r...-motor-20-22l/
--OMM/Rusty Motor tests: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1006721
--Richard Brashley's motor data chart: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...on#post9335504
--Rusty's ESC cooling tests: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...p#post10192943
--R/C motor and lipo calculations and recommendations and build site: http://scriptasylum.com/rc_speed/index.html
--Tachometer BIY using free PC oscilloscope and microphone: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...=tachomet+mous , http://www.wattflyer.com/forums/show...ighlight=scope
--Tachometer BIY using parts from a mouse: DIY very simple tachometer (RPM counter)
--Thrust measurement test stands: Dr. Kiwi solution: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...t=thrust+stand
--Watt meter BIY for $3 by Rich Smith: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=949923

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Old Aug 18, 2009, 01:31 PM
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Jim,

I think we need to add the TT-Copter, and QuadroControl II/XS as well.

Damon
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Old Aug 18, 2009, 01:47 PM
Tri-Quad-Hexa-Octo-copters!!
United States, TX, San Antonio
Joined Feb 2007
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Damon,
Yep, I noticed I missed those in the poll, but they are in the links. I will see if I can add to the poll. In the meantime, anyone who has a TT-Copter or BigQuadro and QuadroControl should post and I will add to the top of my link posting as a work-around. I've sent questions about editing the polls to the moderators and site managers, but have not heard back from them. It appears from my first test that once it is started, there is no means to add lines to it. Hopefully I will find a way..
*Edit: Added to Quadrocopter and Tricopter Info Mega Link Index!! Poll additions part 2: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1157997
Cheers,
Jim

Quote:
Originally Posted by saturnine
[Jim,
I think we need to add the TT-Copter, and QuadroControl II/XS as well.
Damon
*Edit: This was another workaround to the 600,000 character per post RCG limit

__________________________________________________ ___________________________________________
We now return you to our regular program: MEGA Multicopter Index part 3/4 continued!
__________________________________________________ ___________________________________________

On Screen displays and FPV and AVP:

--TIP 1: Amateur Radio License (HAM) is required to use some frequencies in the US: http://www.wikihow.com/Get-an-Amateu...ense-in-the-US and http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/classes.html
--TIP 2: Adding a video or down-link Tx can have detrimental effects on your Tx/Rx range and GPS if fitted. Be sure to do a proper range test when adding these transmitters to your model. The use of filters and ferrite rings properly wound and placed near the sources will help reduce this Rf interference. A cheap (sometimes free) source of ferrite rings are old obsolete dead computer power supplies, computer main boards, and modems.
--TIP 3: Practice flying with dummy weight equal to your AVP and or FPV setups instead of those expensive and easily damaged systems to make sure you are comfortable with the multicopter's flight performance at your fully equipped AUW. Flying with a higher weight can cause the multicopter to be somewhat less responsive and require higher throttle input to arrest descents.
--TIP 4: Also see the Wiring info for multicopters section
--$15 TX Mount FPV System by Mnemennth: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1829318
--433Mhz Datalink Transceivers set for ~$45: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=843 , http://www.sureelectronics.net/goods.php?id=1053
--915Mhz and 433Mhz 3DR Datalink Transceivers for ~$50. http://www.ebay.com/itm/F03016-Dual-...item3a77e4ca4b , ~$75 at DIYDrones: https://store.diydrones.com/ProductD...lemetry-3DR915
--1.2Ghz Tx/Rx Info on one page by Iacei: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1279902
--12v Step-up Buck Inverter for FPV VTX and camera filtering: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1361685
--Adding extra channels to PPM Tx/Rx: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=661
--AP Landing Multicopter threads: http://www.aplanding.com/forums/forumdisplay.php?f=78
--A poor Man's OSD: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=921467
--Antenna suggestions thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1057700
--Antenna building blog, with many antenna BIY options by IBCrazy: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/member.php?u=103113
--Audio Modem Protocol for FPV telemetry: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1157558
--Build your own FPV antennas: by IBCrazy: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...8#post13840369 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1389925. by OMM: Pinwheel Antenna: (aka Skew-Planer Wheel) http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=256 and Stacking Two PinWheel Antennas: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=376 and Circular Polarized Open BiQuad Antenna:
http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=406 *Also see OMM's Omni 3+ Mile FPV Quadcopter System listed below.
--Camera controller Index by Arthur P.: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1069837
--Camera for FPV: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1053024
--Camera shutter controller: $2 camera controller by Rich Smith: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1144896
--Camera controller using an SOIC by FMkit: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...l#post15520955, and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...l#post14758312 , and one he designed that uses a Wii Nunchuk: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...l#post14859439 , his website: http://www.fmtv.us/
--CCD vs. CMOS sensor artifact and rolling shutter comparisons: http://dvxuser.com/jason/CMOS-CCD/
--Circular Polarized Antenna BIY How-to by IBCrazy: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1388264
--Do it Yourself Drones: www.diydrones.com
--EagleTree V3 Logger: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=754979 , website: http://www.eagletreesystems.com/
--EagleTree OSD-Pro: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=924018 and http://www.rcgroups.com/eagle-tree-systems-443/
--EagleTree Eagle Eyes Ground Station: Antenna Tracking, Diversity, Telemetry, and distribution:
http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1048046
--EagleTree EagleLink 443hz and 1.2ghz system for FPV: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1205574
--EPI-OSD for the Mikrokopter: forum: http://forum.mikrokopter.de/topic-9677-1.html
--Ferrite filtering info: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...43#post6467186 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...e#post11263193 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...te+ring+source , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...e#post12079239
--FCC Equipment Authorization Search: https://gullfoss2.fcc.gov/oetcf/eas/...ericSearch.cfm
--Filtered power source: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...8#post12321508 store: http://www.dimensionengineering.com/
--FPV-Community.com: http://www.fpv-community.com/
--FPV video thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=972676
--Key fob camera info: http://www.chucklohr.com/808/#SetDateTime and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1115052 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1102410 , HD Key fob cam #11 thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1362692 , HD Key fob cam #16 thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1556994
--Lince 2.0(Lynx 2.0)and DakarOSD 2.7b Tracking Antenna +Telemetry with video signal: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=955535
--Live FPV: http://www.framesmartlive.com/FPV.php forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...089781&page=19
--Long range 2.4Ghz mods: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...833260&page=18
--Long Range UHF System Dragan Link: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1026959
--Long range UHF system by Thomas Sherrer: forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=905915 , website: http://www.webx.dk/rc/uhf-link3/uhf-link3.htm
--Modifying the MinimOSD Charset to look less cluttered (for Dummies): hsttp://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1830845
--Modding junk 900 Mhz antenna:http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=927590
--OMM's High Def video: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=866942
--OMM's 3+ mile FPV Quadrocopter System: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1147430
--ONE STOP: COMPLETE "Portable Recording Device list!": http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1146016
--OSD for ~$9: http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/s...dProduct=19369 forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...8#post16403879
--Photo wide angle distortion correction software GML Image Undistorter: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post15031965
--Reckless Bill's FPV: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...4#post12400424
--RSSI connections for various r/c receivers: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=923419 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1130784
--RSSI connection for common video receivers: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...i#post12970317
--RSSI ~$2 easy build buffer by BlueAngel2000: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...2&postcount=26
--SD card format utility. Use this for best recording results: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=1337
--Simple Solution to Range Video 900 Mhz Antenna Issue: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=937068
--Shops: Pasadena Networks Antennas Etc.: http://www.wlanparts.com/category/antennas/ , Flytec Computers WiFi equipment: http://www.flyteccomputers.com/ , ImmersionRC: http://www.immersionrc.com/ , Intelligent Flight: http://www.intelligentflight.com.au/ , RangeVideo: http://www.rangevideo.com/index.php?...roducts_id=135 , DPC-AV: http://www.dpcav.com/xcart/home.php? , New Generation Hobbies: http://www.nghobbies.com/cart/
--Spectrum Analyzers and Frequency counters: WiSpy: http://www.metageek.net/products/wi-spy/ , Airview: http://www.titanwirelessonline.com/U...r-p/sa-av2.htm Frequency counters: http://www.dealextreme.com/p/profess...619?r=54563706 , http://www.securitycamera2000.com/pr...d2.4G-LCD.html , http://www.seeedstudio.com/depot/rf-...html?cPath=174
--Spektrum Tx/Rx Range in FPV use: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=783753 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1047925
--Video editing help and info: http://www.videohelp.com/
Parachute and Recovery System Info:
--Tip 1: A parachute as failsafe system can cause more problems than it prevents, which is why you do not see it in all multicopters. The added weight, the reality that it will only work under the best conditions and the fact that even if it does successfully deploy in a populated area, it can float into somewhere dangerous like a highway, etc., where it becomes a potential lawsuit makes it a system that is not right for every situation. Ultimately multicopter safety starts on the ground with your build and flying skills, detailed and disciplined pre and post flight inspections and mature safety of flight flight decisions, especially around people and property.
--Parachute demonstration (Mini-Mixer quad) by ClarkSt: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...d+build+mixers
--Parachute demonstration (MK, camera parachute) by MB1380: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=8454
--Parachute demonstration by (MK) Chris2798: http://www.rcmovie.de/video/37178408...llschirmtest-3 and thread: http://forum.mikrokopter.de/topic-4356-3.html
--Parachute demonstration (MK) by wep800: http://forum.mikrokopter.de/topic-4916.html
--Parachute demonstration (UAVP) by Thint1: http://www.rcmovie.de/video/8b1ea54f...ungsfallschirm
--Parachute demonstration (MK) by Wouter: Parachute deployment flight test. (3 min 48 sec)and Parachute deployment dome test (1 min 3 sec)
--Parachute Recovery System by Nikivan: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...ostcount=14059
--Parachute Recovery System by Opale Paramodels: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1729385
--Parachute shop: http://aeroconsystems.com/cart/produ...hute-56-2.html
--Related threads: Quadrocopter Parachute and Has anyone rigged up a parachute safety back up on a quad? and Afraid to fly in the center of town! and Using balloons for multicopter failsafe and Ballistic Recovery System for Multicopters
PID Info:
--TIP 1: Build yourself a simple PID test stand when doing the initial rough-in of your PID settings, or tie down your model, or carefully do a low hover speed hand test after making any changes to your PID. See Helmuteke's thread on PID test stands: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1422607 In-flight fine-tuning will be required after tuning on a PID test stand for the best results.
--Auto PID Tuning Theory by Bradquick: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1922423
--Brashley's PID explanation: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=3824 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...51#post9935851
--Quadrotor Physics and Control Theory by RoyLB: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1284741
--OpenPilot PID video. Good explanation of Kp/Ki and effects of changes: OpenPilot TV Episode 2: PID Tuning (36 min 51 sec)
--PID explained by Bradquick: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1890703
--PID loops and tuning explanation by Michael King: http://diydrones.com/forum/topics/705844:Topic:46763
--PID tuning theory and configuration guide for MultirotorCraft by Shikra: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1375728
--PID tuning technique by Jesolins: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=944
--PID tuning demonstration video by KapteinKuk: Multicopter PI-tuning: How to recognize different settings. (7 min 52 sec)
--WIKI PID information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PID_controller
Project Multicopters at Universities and Industry:
--Airrobot: http://www.airrobot.de/
--AirSTWing: http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~geykhman/AirSTWing/index.html
--ARIPIM: http://www.enme.ucalgary.ca/~aramirez/AR2S-Lab-Projects.html
--Banshee: http://robotics.ucf.edu/air/home.php
--Braun Model: http://www.braunmod.de/etribelle.htm
--Collective Pitch quadrocopter, single motor National Chong Kung University Taiwan (R.O.C): http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showpost.php?p=19067096&postcount=3
--Cuatricopter: http://www.angelfire.com/electronic2/danvel/
--GRASP Lab at the University of Pennsylvania multicopter projects: https://www.grasp.upenn.edu/success_...colbert_report , http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature...&v=YQIMGV5vtd4
--Handfordsite quad- and tri-rotor: http://www.hanfordsite.com/index.html
--Helicoptere 4 rotors (French): http://perso.orange.fr/grzflyer/
--Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich): http://www.idsc.ethz.ch/Research_DAndrea/FMA
--Isacopter: http://www.das-isa-projekt.de/isacopter.htm
--JAVIATOR: http://javiator.cs.uni-salzburg.at/ with some nice home-made 3 bladed carbon props (cut from carbon tubes, held in a alu rotor head)
--Le MiniX4 and MicroX4: http://www.pascal.zunino.fr/miniX4.htm
--MARV and other vehicles presentation: http://www.aiaa.org/spaceops2006/pre...ions/52674.ppt
--MIT: http://vertol.mit.edu/ , variable pitch quad: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature...&v=VIkqqVr_u9U
--Octocopter V2: http://forum.xufo.net/bb/viewtopic.php?t=3554
--QuadRoCopter: http://www2.fh-rosenheim.de/live/fac...er/default.htm
--Quadrotor and other flying robot projects: http://asl.epfl.ch/research/projects...doorFlying.php
--R.A.V.E.N quadrocopter UPenn: http://airhacks.org/
--Smartlfyer: http://www.smartflyer.de/smarty.html (at least it can lift Smurfs)
--STARMAC: http://hybrid.stanford.edu/~starmac/project.htm with a nice diagram of how control occurs: http://hybrid.stanford.edu/~starmac/x4explained.htm
--VeraTech Aero quadrotor: http://www.veratech.aero/rotorx.html
--Wyvern quadrocopter: http://wyvernupenn.blogspot.com/
Project Bicopters:
--TIP 1: Never be tempted to fly your multicopter without a roll cage or protective cover over the delicate electronics!! It is a well known and completely tested fact that multicopters know when the electronics are not properly protected and will choose that moment to flip and crash upside down like buttered toast, subjecting the flight controller board to serious damage. You have been warned!!...
--TIP 2: Set your Rx failsafe! Most modern Rx's have a failsafe mode that engages if the Tx signal is lost. Make sure you set the throttle to below hover speed, I suggest divide your throttle stick hover position by half, so that it will not go to max throttle and fly away if the Tx signal is lost.
--TIP 3: Get a locator and or lipo alarm balance plug device to help you find your model. See the Locator and Lipo alarm sections for suggestions.
--TIP 4: Also see the Wiring info for multicopters section
--ArduPirate Mega on a Bicopter by GaryGress 1: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1398818
--Bicopter build by Fighter: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showpost.php?p=17393489&postcount=8796
--KapteinKuk Bicopter: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showpost.php?p=15500111&postcount=2442
--nVader 600 v6 - MultiWiiCopter Flight Control by ReverendRichie:http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1391025
--Space Surfer toy: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=918390
--Tilt Rotor Success by Foam and Tape: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1319946
Project hybrid multicopter plus fixed wing builds:
--Mini-Panther Tilt motor tricopter by RCVertt: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1319081
--ReverendRichie's Experimental III V-Tail Copter with MultiWii flight controller: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1318965
--VTOL fixed wing tricopter by EddieWeeks: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showpost.php?p=17760472&postcount=27
Project Quads/Hexas/Octos:
--TIP 1: Never be tempted to fly your multicopter without a roll cage or protective cover over the delicate electronics!! It is a well known and completely tested fact that multicopters know when the electronics are not properly protected and will choose that moment to flip and crash upside down like buttered toast, subjecting the flight controller board to serious damage. You have been warned!!...
--TIP 2: Excellent discussion on capability differences between an octo and hexa and coax and flat prop orientations: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1378824
--TIP 3: Cover your barometer in open cel foam to keep out light and wind for more accuracy. See 13brv3 aka Rusty's test: http://www.radrotary.com/baro_sensor_314.wmv
--TIP 4: Never mount a buzzer alarm on, or point it toward the flight control board. It can cause poor flight controller board performance. Mount it at least 5 inches away if possible. Use shielded wire ot the buzzer and do not run the wires over the accelerometer or gyros.
--TIP 5: Set your Rx failsafe! Most modern Rx's have a failsafe mode that engages if the Tx signal is lost. Make sure you set the throttle to below hover speed, I suggest divide your throttle stick hover position by half, so that it will not go to max throttle and fly away if the Tx signal is lost.
--TIP 6: Get a locator and or lipo alarm balance plug device to help you find your model. See the Locator and Lipo alarm sections for suggestions.
--TIP 7: Do a precise check of your frame and motors and tilts for dynamic mechanical neutral stability to get the best possible yaw performance and heading lock on your multicopter. Do this: First make sure your motors are in perfect condition, no stiffness in turning caused by bearings, no vibrations and are well-balanced, ESC throttle ranges set properly, etc. After your have eliminated the motors as causing the yaw issue, then sight across the arms to the other side with the props perpendicular to you and parallel to each other and aim at a straight line like a window sill and set them for as perfect a level as you can. Set your Tx yaw trims and subtrims to zero. Set your flight controller yaw pots if fitted to the lowest yaw gyro correction influence. If using a PID setup application, then set "1" in the yaw P. Do several one second barely hover "hops" and see if it always tries to yaw in one direction. If it does your motor tilt needs to be adjusted to negate this dynamic yaw and get to neutral stability. Sometimes it is only a hair of a change in tilt but note that it should be the same amount of tilt between the motors on the same axis. To counter opposite yaw correctly, the motors must be tilted in the proper directions on the motor axis' that speeds up to yaw to counter the opposite yaw direction. Note that the tilt directions to increase the yaw strength in the desired direction are opposite on each axis. For example a CCW props on an arm when they speed up will cause the arm to yaw to the right when looking down on it. So to increase the yaw effect the motor should be tilted to the right when you are looking down on it. The CW props would need to be tilted to the left for the increased yaw effect. See this diagram as a visual example: This image has been resized. Click this bar to view the full image. The original image is sized 1024x768. It is a setup procedure that should be accomplished correctly and periodically checked especially after a "hard-landing" in order to get the best heading hold and yaw performance out of multicopters. Be sure to reset the yaw "P" value and or pot to proper flight values when you are finished. An indicator of bad mechanical dynamic neutral stability is weak yaw response in one direction and both motors on one axis being hotter than the other axis. A complete understanding and practical implementation of these mechanical neutral stability setup dynamics will help you get the best possible yaw lock and responsiveness out of your particular flight controller and multicopter. *Note: Do not randomly choose a motor to tilt or you will cause loss of yaw authority in one direction if you choose the wrong motors. Carefully observe and choose the correct motors and axis as described above. Sample instructions: Multicopter mechanical neutral stability, trim and balance 101
--TIP 8: On multicopters larger than 70cm diameter or on any size multicopter that you want more aggressive yaw authority you can apply the motor tilt principles from TIP 7 above in the proper directions for your build and flight controller. You must still insure that the dynamic mechanical neutral stability is correct. Note that a minimal amount of flight time efficiency will be lost when using this technique.
--TIP 9: Center of Gravity(CoG) on multicopters is important for flight performance and efficiency. You must consider the CoG above and below the prop plane as well as the horizontal axis. You should always keep your x and y axis CG as close to center as possible. Carefully consider and test and adjust CoG for camera equipment and battery placement and positioning. This can be done several ways. For example you can hold the ends of the arms on each axis to test for lateral and vertical CoG and suspend with a string from the center. Most boards can handle some CoG offset, but this will cause one or more motors to work harder to keep it level. If the motors on one axis get too hot, you will lose yaw authority. It will be more efficient when the axis are CG centered. For vertical CoG, Most Gents will not see or feel any difference on a 60cm motor-to-motor on axis 1+Kg quad until you move it 6-12+/- inches above or below the prop plane or z-axis. Lighter less powerful quads like might be affected more noticeably with less change in vertical CG distance.
--TIP 10: For cold weather operations: 1. Completely cover the flight controller in soft foam. 2. Attach an old lipo and let it sit disarmed for at least 10 minutes to acclimate to outside air temperatures. Replace with a fresh warm lipo for flight. 3. Keep your lipos warm before use or use a lipo warmer in the form of one of those muscle ache chemical heat pads. Reasons are that there are multiple factors affecting cold weather operations and drift. Besides the IMU and lipo temperatures, even ESCs without and with crystals can cause drifting as they warm up. So let the model acclimate while powered for the best results.
--TIP 11: Also see the Wiring info for multicopters section
--95min 46s flighttime with quad: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1880665
--AeroQuad by Micro: RCG forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...light=aeroquad store: http://carancho.com/AeroQuad/store/
--AfroFlight32 by timecop:~$75 +ship. STM32F103 processor at 72Mhz, Magnometer, 3-axis MEMs gyro and accelerometer, BMP085, and USB. It will run FreeFlight firmware and a Multiwiicode port is in progress. RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post20763929 , Afroflight Naze32 Setup Guide For Dummies, like myself. by Sdueck, Store: http://abusemark.com/store/index.php...products_id=30
--AR.Drone: Available as a prototype for game developers and in a ARTF package ~$350-$1200 ARTF requires Apple IPhone, ITouch, or Linux WiFi. Other Tx possibilities are being developed, http://ardrone.parrot.com/parrot-ar-drone/en/ uses IPhone or ITouch for control and video for postion hold. RCG forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1282893 Projects: https://projects.ardrone.org/projects/show/ardrone-api Tx WiFi-less mod: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1420951
--ArduCopter by DIYDrones: APM2.5+ with GPS ~$180 plus shipping. Telemetry add-on is ~$80. A merger of the ArduPilot and AeroQuad: http://www.diydrones.com/profiles/bl...arducopter-the and http://diydrones.com/profiles/blogs/...opter-part-iii
--ArduFlyer by RCTimer: APM2.5 GPS and telemetry add-on~$140 plus shipping. A liscensed copy of the open source DIYDrones ArduCopter. stores: http://www.rctimer.com/index.php?gOo....x=0&image.y=0 and http://www.uavobjects.com/index.php?...oller=category and APM 2.5 Hardware ArduPilot Firmware Rctimer ArduFlyer Tutorials & Discussion
--ArduPirates team build log by Kinderkram: Modifications to the Aeroquad and ArduCopter code and hardware substitutions for lower cost: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1286011 , MegaPirate Black Vortex flight controller board with on-board Ublox NEO-6Q GPS chip by CSG_EU: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1455433
--ARM-o-Kopter: ~$700, http://www.armokopter.at/
--AutoQuad by Bill Nesbitt ~$400 plus shipping and plus 25% VAT if in Europe. The available videos show this to be a very stable multicopter with GPS features:http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1683776 , http://diydrones.com/profiles/blogs/autoquad-ver-56 and http://diydrones.com/profiles/blogs/...ad-version-6-1
--BaronPilot by Ciskje. Building a tricopter and quad + and X mode, hexa, octo using an Arduino or Teensy++ processor and Wii motion controller: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1246831 and http://www.elenafrancesco.org/arduino/baronpilot/
--Building quads using v-tail mixers and gyros: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...03#post6596903 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...t=446459&pp=15 and http://www.rcuniverse.com/forum/m_14..._1/key_/tm.htm and Xarnon's diagram: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...17#post4727117 and Lemmiwinks build using Xarnon's diagram: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...41#post6596903 Mixers with high resolution that will work well: Digimixer II: http://www.robotmarketplace.com/products/0-DGEVMXR.html and DRC mixers: http://www.desertrc.com/sm2.html SSM's 5 gyro quad and Futaba 10c 90 degree mixing: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1219598
--CADMicopter CAMeleon 300 ARF with Spektrum Rx: ~$1000 store: http://www.cadmicopter.info/english-...eon300arf.html forum: http://forum.mikrokopter.de/topic-po...tml#post155546
--CaspiQuad by dcaspi: http://code.google.com/p/caspiquad/
--Conrad's Quadrocopter 450 ARF: ~$500 w/shipping, store: http://shop.conrad.at/ce/de/product/...F35MHz/1208043 forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1171103
--DJI Innovations Wookong-M is a module based system with GPS position hold and return to home and a PID setup application. ~$1200. website: http://www.dji-innovations.com/en/pr...m_introduction US store: http://www.djiusa.com/ RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1486386
--DJI Innovations NAZA *~$220: quad +/x, hexa (no y6 as yet), 3-axis gyros, accelerometer and barometer. It has D-Bus support, upgrade support, and extendible port. Store: http://dji-hobby.com/naza/index_en.html , RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1536553
--DJI Phantom, FC40, Phantom 2, P2 Vision and P2Vision+, $499-$1800: RCG threads: DJI Phantom Quadcopter, DJI released the Phantom FC40, DJI Phantom 2 ***Owners Thread***, DJI Phantom VISION, DJI Phantom 2 Vision + ***Owners Thread***
--Electric Ducted Fan (EDF) Quad: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...light=edf+vtol
--ESCs designed with dynamic braking for quads and tricopters by Airbotix: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=958957
--Free Flight v1.2: *~$50, a flight controller with STM32 processor, 3-axis gyro and accelerometers, firmware upgradeable. RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1548820
--FEMTOWII: worlds smallest multiwii fc: 190mg 8x10mm by Dave 1993: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1916558
--FY-20A auto stabilizer by Feiyu Tech http://www.feiyudz.cn/ for adding self-leveling to simple gyro only quads: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1278257
--FY-90Q Quadrocopter flight controller board by Feiyu Tech: *~$100 plus shipping *NLA superseded by FY-90Q Pro: RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1304595 FY-90Q parameters spreadsheet: https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?...CJ7p6PwB#gid=0 forum: http://forum.feiyu-tech.com/viewforu...0d7447d742d336 Stores: http://shop.fyetech.com/index.php?cP...2790e24fd28856
--FY-90Q Pro flight controller, firmware upgradable, supporting x2,y3,x4,y6,x8. ~$130. RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ght=fy+90q+pro , Store:http://shop.fyetech.com/product_info...2790e24fd28856
--FY-91Q Quadrocopter flight controller with GPS board by Feiyu Tech: forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1408019 , website: http://www.feiyudz.cn
--Four servo tilt motor quad and tricopter by Joeling: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...45#post8190645 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...89#post6566489
--Gaui-Quadrocopter:http://www.flying-hobby.com/shop/ind...oducts_id=6158
--Greasetattoo's wooden quadrocopter: http://hackaday.com/2010/09/30/wooden-quadcopter-body/
--Harrier jet build. A clever design using a UAVP board by Ulrich: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1213720
--Kapteinkuk's KK Simple Quad, Tri, Hexa and Octo. Originally based on HK401 gyros x3: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1143569 and http://www.kkmulticopter.com/, http://www.multircshop.com/site/ , Kapteinkuk aka Rolf Bakke enters the commercial arena 21 June 2012 with the sale of his KK2 board ~$30, based on Atmel Mega324PA 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller with 32k of memory. An additional 2 motor output channels have been added to the KK2.0 allowing for a total of 8 motors to be controlled (Octocopter), onboard USBasp and LCD for setup of all multicopter types. A handy Piezo buzzer is also included with the board for audio warning when activating and deactivating the board. Warhox's KK build website with outstanding flying videos: http://warthox.tk/ , Flymentor KK build by N3m1s1s: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1398721 , HK410 MEMs gyro mod for KK: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1444999 , Kapteinkuk's improved frimware: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1458663 , KapteinKuk's new KK2 with 3-axis accelerometer info thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1675613 , Mike Barton's XXcontroller C+ KK firmware: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1324621 , HappySunday's NeXtcopterPlus open source KK firmware: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1526268 , BlackCat_'s LCD Emulator for the PC and Android: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1542710 , LazyZero's KKmulticopter Flash Tool: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1526042
--KinderKram's build log for ArduPirate, MultiWii and MiniQuad (AR.Clone) A well-organized and informative multicopter BLOG: Kinderkram's build log: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/member.php?u=316305
--Micro Hexarotor and NanoCopter Quad by Airbotix: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1054541 and http://forum.mikrokopter.de/topic-13092-1.html
--Mini-Mixer by ClarkSt. Building quads and tricopters using mixers and gyros: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=949507 and http://www.mini-mix.blogspot.com/ and Triad Aerial: http://www.ivybrooke.org/southcarolinastars/triad/
--Mr. Lifter Multi Rotor Contest thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1567716
--MrSCSI's web blog: www.rc-multirotor.com
--Multipilot32 ARM Cortex-M3 based board by Redfox74. Fully compatible with the DIYDrones ArduCopter and ArduPirates firmware as well as his Multipilot 2.0 and a variety of sensors firmware, ~$99 plus shipping from Italy: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1392387 , http://www.virtualrobotix.com/
--MultiWiiCopter (formerly TriwiiCopter) by AlexinParis: Originally a tricopter, but now also has quadrocopter firmware and setup utilities, based on a Wii Motion Plus 3-axis gyro extension, and optionally a Wii Nunchuk accelerometer and an Arduino pro mini board. http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1261382 websites: http://www.multiwii.com/ , http://radio-commande.com/internatio...copter-design/ A very nice open source ExpressPCB files DIY PCB by Crash-Man: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1409730
--NeXtcopterPlus is a KK open source firmware and accelerometer mod by HappySundays: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1526268
--Old Man Mike's aka OMM brushless motor Draganflyer conversion using opti-isolators: http://www.rcuniverse.com/forum/m_6316400/tm.htm
--OMM's 1000mm Quad based on Spectrolutions brushless DraganFlyer V5 TI: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=768115
--OpenPilot CopterController: The flight controller board(FCB) has a 32 bit ARM processor at 72Mhz, 3 axis MEMs gyros and accelerometer. This initial OP CC FCB is intended to be a "light" version of a full up FCB with navigation and other features TBD. The open source firmware is in development. The pre-release version shows great potential. Currently only gyro and accelerometer stabilization, with the possibility of more to come. ~$95. main web site: http://www.openpilot.org/Main_Page RCG forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1445279 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1444141 Boards can be purchased in many countries. See the OpenPilot website for a store nearest you. http://www.openpilot.org/get-hardware/ OpenPilot production status: http://www.openpilot.org/openpilot-production-status/
--Palm-size quadrocopter using a TI eZ430-RF2500T v1.0 processor by ThanhTran: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1335765
--Paparazzi Booz Quad by Antoine: web site: http://paparazzi.enac.fr/wiki/Booz , shop: http://ppzuav.com/osc/product_info.php?products_id=101
--Paparazzi Drunken Monkey Booz Quad by Dankers and Gussy: http://wiki.openpilot.org/Main_Page forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1158234
--"PCC" (Plejad Copter Control): A simple Arduino based gyro only quad: http://www.plejad.net/home.html
-- PIPO ISU(Inertial Stabilization Unit)flexible ISU for multicopter, helicopter, aircraft and camera gimbal by erazz. ~$65 for Atmega328P processor, 3-zxis MEMs gyro and 3-zxis accelerometer. Runs PIPO firmware, and Multiwiicopter and Arduprirates ports. Store: http://www.eraviv.com/store/page2.html, RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1392884
--Quadrocopter Resources and Stories, Technotradgic: http://www.technotragic.com/
--Quaduino project: Part 1 http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=885325 Part 2: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1066119
--Quadpowered project ~$229 for main board, $30 for programmer, Add-on board for Accelerometer, Barometric Pressure, On Screen Display circuit, and Camera Stabilization control.~$229, GPS add-on board ~$? TBD. Web site: http://www.quadpowered.com/ and Forum thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ht=quadpowered New name "HoverFly" and redesigned board will be know as the Hoverflytech: http://hoverflytech.com/ FCB with baro, 3x gyros, 3-axis accelerometer ~$360
--QuadroContol: ~$250 BIY for main board and standard ESC's store: http://www.qc-copter.de/wiki/index.php?title=Hauptseite
--Quadrotor using Wii MotionPlus: forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1143580
--Rabbit Flight Controller: *~$90, a flight controller with a NuvoTon processor running at 50Mhz, 3-axis gyro and accelerometers, firmware upgradeable. Quadrocopter Multicopter with Altitude Hold, Direction Care Free modes, sonar, GPS add-on ~$50, RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1564594 , WARNING: What to do if you see a possible GPL violation It has been shown that this Rabbit flight controller is being sold with closed source Rabbit firmware the majority of which is Multiwiicopter open source code. That means the Rabbit developers are in violation of the GNU license that AlexinParis and the Multiwiicopter development team produced and improved over the last 5 years by not publishing their modified version of the Multiwiicopter code. I won't own one because of this I will not recommend it. There are better choices. This warning will remain until the Rabbit development team complies with the intent of the Multwiicopter GNU license and publishes the copied and modified Multwiicopter code which they call Rabbit firmware. Forum thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1610439 , GNU License Information
--Simple quad by SSM aka Simon using standard gryos only: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1219598
--Skymixer ~$TBD website: http://skymixer.engineering.free.fr/ , forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1179120
--Skyquad ~$800 for main board and I2c ESC's store: http://www.1hoch4.de/
--TMF(Top Micro Flight)/FX-H46/AQ-50D Pro are simple plug and play multicopter flight controllers Quad/Hexa/Octo from Taiwan. They use 3 axis gyros and accelerometers. The older TMF/FX-H46 is not firmware upgradeable, but the newer AQ-50D Pro is firmware upgradeable. ~$150 plus shipping: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1430996&, highlight=autoquad#post18101207 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ighlight=aq50d , https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&p...hl=zh_TW&pli=1 Stores: http://www.infinity-hobby.com/main/p...oducts_id=6982 , http://www.foxtechfpv.com/fhx46-quad...ler-p-286.html
--The UAVXARM32F4 is the fully updated in 2012 UAVP/UAVX flight controller. It is fitted with an STM32F405RG6 with FPU 168MHz (1024Kb Flash/32Kb RAM), 512KBit EEPROM, MPU6050 Gyro/Accelerometer, HMC5883L Magnetometer, MS5611 Barometer and 54mm x 51mm size. Options are GPS and Ultrasonic Rangefinder (not included). ~$96.50 plus shipping. This flight controller and UAVX firmware is wonderfully flexible. There is also a sensor-less version sold that can be mounted on the older UAVX pcb in place of the PIC processor to allow the use of the analog sensors on that flight controller board and thereby updating the legacy flight controller to the ARM STM32 bit processor. This flight controller has all the previous UAVX by Prof Greg Egan features for octo, hexa, tricopter, v-copter, helicopter and airplane IMU stabilization. The failsafe features are reliable and configurable. It will auto land. It has telemetry outputs when fitted with a data Tx and will log critical sensor and flight data information on-board for download post flight. When the optional GPS its fitted it has position hold and waypoints. Additionally it will run AlexinParis' Multiwiicopter firmware that has been modified and released by Prof Egan under the GNU open source licensing. Store: http://www.quadroufo.com/product_inf...hjh9lhpgp3ejt3 , RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1093510 , SVN: http://code.google.com/p/uavp-mods
--Variable Pitch Quad builds: Variable Pitch Quad build by Redfox74 and his Multipilot board using variable pitch heli blades and three in-line motors running the shaft driven props: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1187308 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1211064, Variable Pitch 2-Meter Quad build by Arrio: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1222990, Variable Pitch Multicopter Development by Outsider787: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1189826 , National Chong Kung University Taiwan (R.O.C) collective pitch: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...96&postcount=3 , MIT's variable pitch quad: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature...&v=VIkqqVr_u9U
--The WWVi Model UAV Lab by Spydmobile: Nice multicopter site with Franco's organized and detailed build information and updated multicopter news links: http://lab.westernwillow.com/
--XXcontroller software for KapteinKuk's flight controller board the KKmulticopter written in C+ by Mike Barton: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post16320955 Store for KK+: http://www.multircshop.com/site/
--The Zero UAV YS-X6 ~$1130, Available at http://gothelirc.com/default.asp. A new entry into the world market from a reputable Chinese RC company. Forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1639766
Project Tricopters:
--TIP 1: Never be tempted to fly your multicopter without a roll cage or protective cover over the delicate electronics!! It is a well known and completely tested fact that multicopters know when the electronics are not properly protected and will choose that moment to flip and crash upside down like buttered toast, subjecting the flight controller board to serious damage. You have been warned!!...
--TIP 2: Never mount a buzzer alarm on, or point it toward the flight control board. It can cause poor flight controller board performance. Mount it at least 5 inches away if possible. Use shielded wire ot the buzzer and do not run the wires over the accelerometer or gyros.
--TIP 3: Tricopters can use common tractor/CCW props on all three motors. Some use a CW and CCW prop on each of the front motors and a CCW prop on the tail to minimize the torque steer and lean that can result from using all CCW props. This is more of a personal preference than a necessity as it will fly fine either way.
--TIP 4: Set your Rx failsafe! Most modern Rx's have a failsafe mode that engages if the Tx signal is lost. Make sure you set the throttle to below hover speed, I suggest divide your throttle stick hover position by half, so that it will not go to max throttle and fly away if the Tx signal is lost.
--TIP 5: Get a locator and or lipo alarm balance plug device to help you find your model. See the Locator and Lipo alarm sections for suggestions.
--TIP 6: Also see the Wiring info for multicopters section
--AUW and flight-time thread for tricopters: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1184936
--AZChopperCam's Ultra Large Tricopter build using Collective pitch props: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1180274
--BaronPilot by Ciskje. Building a tricopter and quad + and X mode, hexa and octo using an Arduino or Teensy++ processor and Wii motion controller: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1097355 and http://www.elenafrancesco.org/arduino/baronpilot/
--Dadde's FPV Tricopter build: www.RCExplorer.se and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ght=alligators
--Helicommand 3D installation by N3m1s1s: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1262212
--Jack Crossfire's Tricopter blog: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/member.php?u=115141
--Kapteinkuk's KK Simple Quad, Tri, Hexa and Octo. Originally based on HK401 gyros x3: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1143569 and http://www.kkmulticopter.com/, http://www.multircshop.com/site/ , Warhox's KK build website with outstanding flying videos: http://warthox.tk/ , Flymentor KK build by N3m1s1s: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1398721 , HK410 MEMs gyro mod for KK: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1444999 , Kapteinkuk's improved frimware: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1458663 , Mike Barton's XXcontroller C+ KK firmware: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1324621 , HappySunday's NeXtcopterPlus open source KK firmware: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1526268 , BlackCat_'s LCD Emulator for the PC and Android: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1542710 , LazyZero's KKmulticopter Flash Tool: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1526042
--Mikrokopter tricopter build for v1.3: http://translate.google.com/translat...n&hl=&ie=UTF-8
--Mini-Mixer by ClarkSt. Building quads and tricopters using a mini-mixer and gyros: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=949507 and http://www.mini-mix.blogspot.com/ and Triad Aerial: http://www.ivybrooke.org/southcarolinastars/triad/
--MultiWiiCopter (formerly TriwiiCopter) by AlexinParis: Originally a tricopter, but now also has quadrocopter firmware and setup utilities, based on a Wii Motion Plus 3-axis gyro extension, and optionally a Wii Nunchuk accelerometer and an Arduino pro mini board. http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1261382 , Berkley's MWC info compilation: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post16987636 , AlexinParis' website: http://radio-commande.com/internatio...copter-design/ A very nice open source ExpressPCB files DIY PCB by Crash-Man: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1409730 A very nice open source DIY FCB by TheLoon using a ATMEGA 328p with total costs of ~$20: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1421458
--Nek's build: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1494207
--Reverendrichie's Experimental Tricopter build using a Flymentor for self-leveling: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1151035
--Reverendrichie's Experimental Tricopter II build using backswept front arms a variable pitch prop on the tail:
http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1250176
--ReverendRichie's Experimental III V-Tail Copter with MultiWii flight controller: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1318965
--Shrediquette - a tricopter design forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1089221 websites: http://shrediquette.blogspot.com/ and http://www.roboternetz.de/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=412187 An amazingly stable Tricopter designed by William Thielicke, a PhD student and research assistant at the University of Applied Sciences Bremen, Germany/ Rijksuniversität Groningen, the Netherlands (Dept. of Biomimetics)
--Signguy's Tricopter build using common gyros and Tx CPM mixing: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1142429
--Tricopter Yaw control setups: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...7#post16050637
--Trizombie KK tricopter with an extra variable pitch tail for fast and level yaw control by Casiotone: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...2#post16625428
--T-Shaped tricopter by Flipflop: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...+copter&page=7
--T-Shaped tricopter by Skycam4: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1267172
--T/Tri mah vs weight data log and comparisons by Eyeinthesky1: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1334381
--The UAVP/UAVX board can also be set up as a Tricopter with self-leveling, altitude hold, GPS postion hold, return to home and waypoints and more features. forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1093510 shops: www.quadroufo.com and www.lipoly.de
--Yet another tricopter build log by Sebastian forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=959593
--Y-UFO LA Heli forum: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=784277 shops: http://www.gothelirc.com/shopdisplay...kits+%26+parts and http://www.laheli.com/web/product.ph...&kategorie=kit
--XXcontroller software for KapteinKuk's flight controller board the KKmulticopter written in C+ by Mike Barton: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1324621 Store for KK+: http://www.multircshop.com/site/

__________________________________________________ ___________________________________________
The MEGA Index part 4/4 continues in post #10
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Old Aug 18, 2009, 02:57 PM
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Arivaca,Arizona
Joined May 2008
7,715 Posts
This is a very nice reference. Thank you!

I got a UFO#8 on a whim and love it. my helis are are gathering dust. this micro is great for buzzing around the house. My wife doesn't even mind it...much. Just as long as I hover over her. She likes the moving air. I don't need it for lifting capabilities...just for fun.

regards,
Bill
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Old Aug 18, 2009, 04:42 PM
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United States, IN, Greenfield
Joined Feb 2007
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Nice lots a info to read thanks!...CD
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Old Aug 18, 2009, 05:00 PM
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USA
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Very good! why no info on walkera's ufos? I have a feeling that when they release thier brushless version,it will be the most widely used quad because of it's price and simplicity.
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Old Aug 18, 2009, 07:39 PM
Tri-Quad-Hexa-Octo-copters!!
United States, TX, San Antonio
Joined Feb 2007
14,583 Posts
The Walkera UFO #4, #5 and #8 are listed both in the poll and links info area.
Cheers,
Jim
Quote:
Originally Posted by importon
Very good! why no info on walkera's ufos? I have a feeling that when they release thier brushless version,it will be the most widely used quad because of it's price and simplicity.
*Edit: This was yet another workaround to the 600,000 character per post RCG limit

__________________________________________________ ___________________________________________
We now return you to our regular program: MEGA Multicopter Index part 4/4 continued!
__________________________________________________ ___________________________________________

Props:
--TIP 1 **WARNING!: Sand and round the prop blades to remove the very sharp manufacturing flashing to reduce the possibility of extremely severe cuts. Multicopter Safety , Safety dulling props 101 , Jesolins prop info: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...g#post14143132
--TIP 2: Balancing props and motors first separately and then together dynamically is important for reducing vibrations which can interfere with gyros and accelerometers and cause fuzzy photos and video. My pre-flight check: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=1513 Magnetic balancers are best for static balancing props. There are various techniques for dynamic balancing of the prop and motor combination, such as the procedure suggested by OMM here: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=228. **Laser motor balancing is recommended and can also be used to assist in the dynamic motor and prop balancing using OMM's method: How to balance a brushless motor using a Laser Prop balancing video tutorials: Prop balancing video tutorial and HorizonHobby.com How To - Prop Balancing and Motor balancing by sound by Alllbe and Balancing 3-bladed props. Prop balancing threads: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1377953 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...4#post20203295
--TIP 3: One often overlooked cause of vibrations after the motors and props are properly balanced is prop tracking. Check the props from the sides, if the blades are not in the same plane when spinning, that will cause some vibrations and possible oscillations in your model. Some props are just warped and need to be replaced. The centering of the prop hole is also important to eliminate vibrations. If your prop is not tight on the motor shaft and centered, it will cause vibrations.
--TIP 4: Also see the Vibration and balancing solutions section in this index.
--TIP 5: I prefer collet adapters that clamp over the set screw type for the best reliability. The reliability trick for collet adapters is to first roughen up the motor shaft with sandpaper or an emery board, then use an old prop and really tighten the collet on the motor shaft first. Tightness suggestion is finger-tight, then 1/2 turn for this initial tightening. Use finger-tight and 1/2 to 2/3 of a turn for mounting flight props. Do not use a new prop as the initial collet tightening process can weaken the hub and cause cracks. Use platic safe #425 Loktite, or first test your Lok-tie brand on an old broken prop to make sure it does not crack or dissolve the plastic, and flat thin washers the width of the hub and a locknut for the best insurance of the prop staying tight. Do not use lock-washers directly on the props as they will stress the hub and cause cracks. Do not use prop-savers on high cost multicopters. They are prone to vibrations and rotting O-rings. They are OK for low-cost sport flying multicopters if you want to use them at all.
--TIP 6: For most tris/quads/hexa/octos the slow-fly 2-bladed type of props are the favorite for overall performance and efficiency. Tri-bladed props will work, but are not efficient and can cause oscillations.
--TIP 7: Most quads/hexa/octos use props in counter-rotating pairs. Most common normally used props on models are CCW rotation, also called tractor props. When looking at the front of the CCW rotating prop the air is propelled behind it. The common orientation is the front and rear using the CCW props and the left and right using the CW, or pusher props. This may or may not be reversible, i.e., CW props on front and rear and CCW props on left and right, in your setup utility depending on the version of quad you fly. If the front, rear, left right prop orientation is not selectable via the setup application, then the props must be mounted the way the flight control board requires them or the quad will not fly and possibly will flip when throttle is applied. The CCW(tractor)+CW(pusher) prop sets are not commonly available, but online stores do have them.
--TIP 8: With some quads/hexa/octos you can use the same standard CCW props and CCW motor direction by adding 5-10 degrees of tilt that counters the centrifugal forces of the spinning props. This is somewhat less efficient as it uses more power to maintain heading and yaw than a combination of CCW and CW props, but it does work. It does give good yaw control when setup correctly even for arm lengths in excess of 70cm motor-to-motor which is about the limit for yaw authority when 10-13" CCW and CW prop pairs are used. An example setup using only CCW props would be while looking down on the quad with the front facing away from you: the front motor would be tilted to the left, the rear motor would be tilted to the right, the left motor would be tilted forward and the right motor would be tilted to the rear. Here is a good how-to explanation by Simon: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=323
--TIP 9: Estimater's for electric motor and prop combinations: http://adamone.rchomepage.com/calc_motor.htm and http://www.ecalc.ch/xcoptercalc.htm?ecalc&lang=en and http://personal.osi.hu/fuzesisz/strc_eng/index.htm and http://www.peakeff.com/MotorDetails....ID=2753&v=10.5 and http://www.drivecalc.de/
--TIP 10: Excellent discussion on capability differences between an octo and hexa and coax and flat prop orientations: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1378824
--TIP 11: Tricopter's can use common tractor/CCW props on all three motors. Some use a CW and CCW prop on each of the front motors and a CCW prop on the tail to minimize the torque steer and lean that can result from using all CCW props. This is more of a personal preference than a necessity as it will fly fine either way.

--The available CW and CCW props, pricing and where to buy:
--AR.Drone props: ~$6.99(cw and ccw set of 4): http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00...SIN=B0041G5Y8C , http://www.brookstone.com/ar-drone-replacement-propellers.html?his=2~46337~2~root_category%40kwd~ drone&bkiid=searchResults|C4CategoryProdList1FDT|9 400833 , http://ardrone.parrotshopping.com/fr...rone_main.aspx
--EPP845: ~$4pair. 3.7g, - Good for quads/tris weighing less than 500g.
--EPP1045: ~$5pair. 5g, -The most commonly used, but not recommended for quads carrying expensive cameras or quads over 1Kg AUW. The shiny black old EPP plastic prop formula will typically will break at the hub under stress. The very recent newer formula has a sparkle and matte finish and seems to be a bit stronger. For multicopter reliability, do not use them with more than 250g per prop loading and replace if stressed at all in a crash. The will still break in-flight if that guidance is not followed.
--EPP1245: ~$7pair. 8g. -Mixed reviews. Fragile.
--CFK1045: ~$150 for set of 4 at: http://www.lcc-shop.de/index.htm
--APC1047: ~$7pair. 11.1g. -Good performance and durable
--APC1147: ~$8pair. 14.9g
--APC1155E: ~$8pair. 21.3
--APC1238: ~$8pair. 18.1g.
--APC1365: ~$12pair. 26g.
--APC1447: ~$12pair. 25g.
--Gaui 8 in prop sets in various colors: ~$13 for set of 4, 2 x CCW, 2 x CW, 4g at: http://www.allerc.com/gaui-330x-8-in...rk-p-6036.html , http://www.helidirect.com/gaui-330x-...8_238_1449.hdx , http://rchelicanada.com/gaui-product.../prod_207.html
--Gemfan 8x45, 9x45, 10x45, 11x45, 12x45. ~$1-$2ea. Similar in weight and performance to the EPP props. http://www.goodluckbuy.com/index.php...mfan&x=25&y=13 , http://www.innov8tivedesigns.com/index.php?cPath=46_132 , http://www.rcdude.com/servlet/the-Pr...tor/Categories , http://www.hobbyregion.com/Supply-cwccw-prop_c44 , www.hellfast.com.au
--Graupner 10x5 E: 11.5g. ~$10each. http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...s#post13006870 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...s#post12492870
--Graupner 11x5E: 17g. ~12ea
--LED prop lighting modifications: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1410144
--Microdrone props: ~$150each
--Prop info: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...s#post13008221 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post13020533 , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...s#post10397958
--RCKopter AVP13x5, ~$95 for set of 4. 18g. at http://rckopter.com/prod_detail.php?prod_id=6
--RCTimer has a good selection of nylon and composite and CF props: www.rctimer.com
--Silverlit 7.75" XUFO props:~$20 for set of 4. 5g. at: http://www.xufo-shop.ch/shop/X-UFO-Propellerset
--Stores for purchase at: www.quadroufo.com , https://www.mikrocontroller.com , www.nghobbies.com , http://carancho.com/AeroQuad/store/ , http://rckopter.com/index.php , http://www.draganflyer.com , http://www.toddsmodels.com , http://lipoly.de/ , https://shop.graupner.de/webuerp/servlet/AA?wgr=4212 , http://www.maxxprod.com/mpi/mpi-29a.html , http://www.apcprop.com/v/index.html , www.rctimer.com , http://www.multircshop.com/site/ , http://witespyquad.gostorego.com/propellers.html ,
http://www.allerc.com/props-apc-props-c-36_37.html , http://www.rcdude.com/servlet/the-Pr...ops/Categories , http://montorc.com/apc1047sfp.aspx, http://www.innov8tivedesigns.com/index.php?cPath=46_132 , http://www.rcdude.com/servlet/the-Pr...tor/Categories , http://www.hobbyregion.com/Supply-cwccw-prop_c44
--Thrust analysis: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?p=13048556&highlight=graupner+props #post13048556
--TurboAce/XAircraft/Lotus T580 props 1260 with 4mm metal threaded insert: ~$11 pair. 18.9g
--Vario Props: http://www.varioprop.de/home_e/varioprop_e/varioprop_e.html I don't know of anyone that uses them, but they look interesting!
--Walkera 7.75" UFO #4 props: ~$10 for set of 2. 5g. at: http://www.rc-fever.com/walkera-glid...0_357_161.html and http://www.ckado.com/UFO-004-Z-04-pr...t_1793_en.html
--XOAR 11x5: 13.6g. www.xoarintl.com
--XOAR PJP 13x5: 21g. CF www.xoarintl.com
--XOAR PJQ quad props TBA: http://www.xoarintl.com/props/model-airplane/PJQ.html
--Y-UFO 7.75" props: ~$8 for set of 4. 5g. at: http://www.laheli.com/web/product.ph...azev=propeller Y-UFO 4pcs (2xL, 2xR) black and http://www.gothelirc.com/shopdisplay...arch=yes&bc=no
Rx Converters and tools and mods for composite PPM signal:
--Arthur/Richard/Thomas aka Mr. RC-Cam Spektrum AR7000 PPM converter: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...m#post12011142 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...m#post12381038 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...m#post10413385
--Berg 4L composite PPM mod: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=140
--BIY PPM adapter by Rich Smith: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1000132
--Composite PPM conversions list of receivers WIKI and how to convert them at the Mikrokopter site: http://translate.google.com/translat...n&hl=&ie=UTF-8
--Corona RPD81 composite PPM mod: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ght=corona+mod
--DIYDrones 8 Channel PPM converter (same as Paparazzi) by Chris Anderson: http://store.diydrones.com/ProductDe...Code=BR%2DPPME
--Flyboard 8-12 channel RC PPM serializer converter: http://www.flashrc.com/flyboard/5470...ms_soudes.html
--Free Oscilloscope and Logic analyzer: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...e#post13771796
--FoxTechFPV 12ch PPM adapter: http://www.foxtechfpv.com/ppm-encoder-p-236.html
--FrSky V87R-SP and D8R Rx's can output PPM on ch8: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ight=frsky+ppm and http://code.google.com/p/uavp-mods/w...SkyProgramming
--Futaba R156F composite PPM mod: http://www.mikrokopter.de/ucwiki/R156F
--Futaba R617RS BIY PPM converter: http://jreise.de/PPM/R617FS.html
--Futaba R617RS 5ch composite PPM signal mod: http://www.mikrokopter.de/ucwiki/R607FS
--HiTec HFS 05S composite PPM mod: http://www.rcuniverse.com/forum/m_6665974/tm.htm
--HiTec Optima CPPM firmware mod: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...40&postcount=1
--Logic Analyzer Displays of PPM Rx Channels thread by Dleroi: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...7#post14013766
--Logic Analyzer: The Fabulous Free Logic Analyzer: http://tfla-01.berlios.de/
--OMM Futaba FASST converter for R606FS, R607FS(6ch output only) and R617FS(7ch ouput) Rx's: http://www.shop.aglhobbiesllc.com/R-C-Electronics/
--Paparazzi PPM converter: http://ppzuav.com/osc/product_info.p...products_id=91 and http://chebuzz.com/
--PPM adapter for Futaba R617FS: http://translate.google.com/translat...n&hl=&ie=UTF-8
--PPM adapter for Spektrum satellite Rx: http://www.1hoch4.net/shop/product_i...9fc2vov95qj3t2
--QuadroPPM converter: https://www.mikrocontroller.com/inde...543db51437c8a7 and http://www.nghobbies.com/cart/index....roducts_id=346
--TT-RenEnc converter: http://tt-rc.ath.cx/SHOP/ITEM-10
Safety Issues!!!
--TIP 1 **WARNING!: Be safe! A multicopter with a lipo attached and powered is considered armed and dangerous! Be mindful of the dangers to yourself during the setup process, and children and adults while flying. Always remove props for initial setup and PID adjustments and test! Securely tie down or attach enough weight to hold the multicopter for the first props on Tx/Rx control tests, new firmware loads and PID adjustments! Wear eye protection. Dull and round the leading edges and tips of your props for safety!! Read the Safety Issues section!
--TIP 2 **WARNING!: Sand and round the prop blades to remove the very sharp manufacturing flashing to reduce the possibility of extremely severe cuts. Multicopter Safety , Safety dulling props 101
--TIP 3 **WARNING!: The Lipos we use in RC are only safe when we adhere to proper charging and safety procedures. Properly dispose of puffed or damaged Lipos. These will burn your house down and cause serious bodily injury if they ignite! They can and will produce flames and shrapnel with over 1500F/815C temperatures! Frequently inspect the condition of your Lipos to include any cracked connecter solder joints or loose or damaged shrink wrap that is protecting the wires. See this Lipo fire video!!
--TIP 4 **WARNING!: Do not use GPS position hold or return to home when flying indoors on multicopters! The GPS signal indoors is not reliable without an expensive GPS signal repeater. Using GPS indoors can result in random position data that can cause your model to move suddenly and unexpectedly. Indoor flight use of GPS is not approved and can be dangerous!
--TIP 5 **WARNING!: Use Operational Risk Management(ORM) in all your RC flying activities. This has been part of the successful U.S. Air Force safety program and general aviation for over 20 years. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operati...isk_management
--TIP 6: Always take a good sized towel with you and have it immediately available to throw on the props if necessary to protect yourself and others in the event of an uncontrolled condition.
--Carrying LIPOs on commercial aircraft: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=788273 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...9#post16688169
--CF Safety health precautions (carcinogenic dust WARNING!) when cutting and drilling: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...6#post14129506 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...4#post19743790 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1503392
--Danger of flying near high tension wires: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post15340576
--FPV flying safety: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=616667
--Multicopter Safety threads with accident and injury photos: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1144377 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1649434
--Quadrocopters...Let's keep this hobby safe!
--Safely disposing of puffed or old tired Lipos: http://www.rctoys.com/pr/2007/07/06/...battery-packs/
--United States Amateur Model Fpv Safety Code (Including AMA Code 550): http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=911761
Soldering and PCB Tips
-- Make and etch your own PCB's: http://hackaday.com/2008/07/28/how-t...gle-sided-pcb/
-- Flite Test - Solder Thick Gauge Wire - FAST TIP (1 min 54 sec)
-- http://www.riccibitti.com/pcb/pcb.htm
-- http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ng#post9806697
-- http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...8#post13803428
-- http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/solder.htm
-- http://blip.tv/file/126631
-- http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/tut...torials_id=106
-- http://curiousinventor.com/guides/Su..._Soldering/101
-- Using ChipQuik to Desolder Surface Mount Components
-- SMT SMD Soldering In Toaster Oven
Stores for ARTF and RTF multicopter's:
--ARTF and RTF multicopter's index by Tc3wins: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1416263
Stores for DIY/BIY:
--TIP 1: Delrin is often the material used to make common cutting boards. They are ususally white in color, but much cheaper, especially when purchased at a dollar store, and locally available, than buying Delrin from an online shop It cuts best with a band saw, but can be done using jig, scroll and sabre saws as well. Table saws tend to heat it up too much and melt it.
--Aluminum sheet stock: https://www.onlinemetals.com/merchan...p=2&top_cat=60
--Balsa, aircraft plywood, fiberglass, CF sheet, Delrin, etc.: http://www.redarrowhobbies.com/fin.htm , http://www.mjpcarbon.com/carbon_fiber , http://www.goodwinds.com/index.shtml , http://www.mcmaster.com/# , http://www.interstateplastics.com , https://www.acpsales.com/OnlineStore.php , http://dragonplate.com/ecart/categories.asp?cID=67
--Electronics parts: www.mouser.com , www.digikey.com , www.sparkfun.com, http://www.dimensionengineering.com/ , http://www.parallax.com/Store/tabid/60/Default.aspx , http://www.alliedelec.com/ , http://www.futureelectronics.com/en/Pages/index.aspx , http://www.newark.com/ , http://www.seeedstudio.com/depot/
--Hardware; screw, nuts, bolts, Delrin, nylon spacers: http://www.mcmaster.com/# , http://www.smallparts.com/185-7870010-0230134? , http://www.fastener-express.com/inde...S&Category=218 , http://www.microfasteners.com/catalog/index.cfm , www.rtlfasteners.com , http://www.probolt-usa.com/aluminium...s.html?cat=716
--List of USA retailers: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...0#post24568355
--Vendors Who Provide Military discounts: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=661752 Thank you Gents!
--Vendors for RC supplies: Links To Internet R/C Vendors And Information Sites by Bukkene Bruse
--Vendors for RC multicopter supplies by Flying-Monkey: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1438969
--Wire: http://www.bulkwire.com/wire-cable/test-lead-wire.html
Transmitter Info mods, modes, dual rates and exponential:
--Mode 1: has rudder + elevator on left stick, and aileron + throttle on right.
Mainly Asia and some in Australia and Europe use this mode.
--Mode 2: has throttle + rudder on left stick, and elevator + aileron on the right stick (so right stick acts like a traditional aircraft and helicopter joystick with elevator and aileron). Most in USA use this mode.
--Mode 3: has elevator + aileron on the left stick, and throttle + rudder on the right stick. This is the opposite stick position of Mode 2..
--Mode 4: has throttle + ailerons on left stick, and elevator + rudder on the right stick. This is the opposite stick position of Mode 1.
--PPM and PWM signal explanation and information: http://www.endurance-rc.com/ppmtut.php and http://code.google.com/p/multiwii/wiki/PWM_Generation
--RC model protocol and transceiver database: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/...=sharing#gid=0
--Transmitter Modes explanation: http://www.rc-airplane-world.com/rc-...ter-modes.html and http://code.google.com/p/multiwii/wiki/PWM_Generation
--Transmitter Dual Rates and Exponential explanation: http://www.hoverandsmile.com/tx/64/r...nd-exponential
--Transmitter Open Source Projects List: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...x#post24059146
--The FlySky/iMax/Turnigy 9x/Eurgle 9CH radio Custom Firmware Facts/How-to Thread! by Crucial: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1266162#post15408227 , Turnigy 9x mods: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...turnigi+9x+mod , http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...d#post17861345 , Core9x scratch build Turnigy 9x by dave1993: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...d#post21299734 , Turnigy firmware mod differences by ZeroPitch: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...turnigi+9x+mod
--Walkera DEVO Tx Hacking and Deviation firmware and mods by PhracturedBlue: http://www.deviationtx.com/articles/1-welcome , RCG thread: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ghlight=deviat
--Walkera DEVO 10 Tx: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...rotocol+for+9x
Vibration and balancing solutions:
--TIP 1: One often overlooked cause of vibrations after the motors and props are properly balanced is prop tracking. Check the props from the sides, if the blades are not in the same plane when spinning, that will cause some vibrations and possible oscillations in your model. Some props are just warped and need to be replaced. The centering of the prop hole is also important to eliminate vibrations. If your prop is not tight on the motor shaft and centered, it will cause vibrations.
--TIP 2: In addition to mounting your board on vibration isolation systems such as the grommets and pads listed below, be sure to take care in placement and elimination of the wires as sources for transferring vibrations to your boards. Do not allow them to rest on the boards, gyros, accelerometer, or compass, etc. Make the ESC, servo and power wires long enough so that you can put a bend in them before the board to mitigate directly transferring vibrations from the motors and arms of the multicopter.
--TIP 3: The prop wash over the arms generates a pulsing vibration. It is worse when the props are closer to the arms and if the arms are wide and flat. Keep the prop to arm distance as large as possible. This effect has been tested to diminish at about the radius of a prop. Some have successfully tested putting a small wedge over the tube under the prop to lessen this pulsing effect. You can feel this effect yourself by holding some arm material under the props while safely tied down with hover power input.
--TIP 4: Balancing props and motors first separately and then together dynamically is important for reducing vibrations which can interfere with gyros and accelerometers and cause fuzzy photos and video. Magnetic balancers are best for static balancing props. There are various techniques for dynamic balancing of the prop and motor combination, such as the procedure suggested by OMM here: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=228. **Laser motor balancing is recommended and can also be used to assist in the dynamic motor and prop balancing using OMM's method: How to balance a brushless motor using a Laser Prop balancing video tutorials: Prop balancing video tutorial and HorizonHobby.com How To - Prop Balancing and Motor balancing by sound by Alllbe and Balancing 3-bladed props. Prop balancing threads: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1377953 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...4#post20203295 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...6#post21080851 and for micro props: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...0#post23286942
--TIP 5: Before and after every flight, I hold down the quad and run the motors through the hover throttle range and observe the motor shafts looking straight down on them. If they are not running true, and have not been previously bent from a hard landing, then that is an indicator that the props and or motors need to be balanced or checked for other damage before flight.
--Balancing micro props by SebastionJ: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...0#post23286942
--Brashley motor grommets OMM and Rusty tests: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...s#post12083233
--FredericG's Mikrokopter motor and prop balance test firmware using the onboard accelerometer: http://www.mikrokopter.de/ucwiki/en/VibrationTest
--Hobby King anti-vibration foam: http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbycity/s...999&aff=162120
--Jesolins anti-vibration post: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...s#post13921679 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...s#post13385537
--Jesolins motor and prop balance 101: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...01#post9581824 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...g#post13657953
--Jesolins prop balancing 101: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...ng#post9695036
--Jesolins Sorbothane self-made grommets: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post13067630
--Kyosho Zeal Vibration Absorption Gyro/Receiver Mounting Gel: http://www.t-rex-parts.com/Tools/c29...b2p9a7r579igo2 , http://www.espritmodel.com/index.asp...D&ProdID=13259 , http://www.heliproz.com/prodinfo.asp?number=138006 and http://www.ronlund.com/Merchant2/mer...uct_Code=Z8006 , http://www.amainhobbies.com/product_...ng-Gel-1-Sheet
--Multiwiicopter vibration testing program: Using the Multiwii Vibration Test Program to achieve the Best Balance (5 min 21 sec)
--MWC vibration test code download here: http://code.google.com/p/multiwii/downloads/list
--OMM's dynamic motor/prop balance tests: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=228
--Rusty's tests on vibrations caused by props passing over the arms: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=300
--PU Antivibration gel by Align: http://www.helihobby.com/html/adhisves_and_lubes.html , http://www.amainhobbies.com/product_...rce=google_ext , http://www.rcplanet.com/ProductDetai...10457A&click=3
--Sorbothane: http://www.scientificsonline.com/sorbothane-sheets.html and http://isolateit.com/
--Test setups for vibration using accelerometers: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=7978 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=7980
--Va3mw's MK prop balancing technique using the MKTools accelerometer readings: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...&postcount=627
--Vibration damping frequency transmissablity considerations by BJM-Maxx: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...ostcount=16338
--Vibration damping grommets McMaster-Carr: http://www.mcmaster.com/#vibration-dampers/=92ctcq
--Vibration damping materials and solutions: http://isolateit.com/
--Vibration damping screw sets for hard drives: http://www.jab-tech.com/Vibration-Da...s-pr-3739.html
--Vibration damping solutions from the kitchen by Thumb_number: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1297905
--Vibration, Shock, Noise and Thermal Control Solutions at Gelmec in UK: http://www.gelmec.co.uk/GelmecHDDPCBGrommets.html
Wiring info for multicopters:
--TIP 1: Braid or twist power distribution wires to minimize Rf emissions. Info here: http://www.stefanv.com/rcstuff/qf200406.html Use only the lightest gauge wire necessary to carry the current load required for your quad to save weight. Examples: A quad with total ~30W hover: Lipo to wire harness 16g, ESC wire harness 18g, harness to board 20g. Design your harness as light as possible if using any fuses or hardware in order to save weight too. There has been no problem running either the ESC pos/neg power wires or the wire to the motor in lengths of up to 40cm. You will use less wire and therefore have less weight if you run the power wires out to the ESCs. The ESCs will perform better when cooled by the airflow of the props. Longer motor side lead length does effect the back emf detection of the controller, so the longer the leads, the less accurately and efficiently the motor will be run.
So if you need to lengthen wires in a specific installation, doing it between battery and ESC is the safest approach and in a multicopter application has the additional benefit of offering cooling air from the prop wash. For additional technical info see Rusty's ESC cooling tests and the "Extending brushless cables thread" particularly the posts made by Patrick del Castillo of Castle Creations(Patrick) and Whanderson(Bill P.), a NASA engineer.
--TIP 2: Initial power on testing using a 9v transistor radio battery: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...7&postcount=41
--TIP 3: Spark arrestor lipo arming solutions *Note: The spark itself is not necessarily a bad thing, but it can damage, or carbonize connectors over time thus making them unreliable if you don't notice that and replace them. Also if you have a connector that is hard to put together then you should fix that as multiple repeated sparks have been known to sometimes damage ESCs: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...2#post11342887 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...0#post10697350
--TIP 4: The attempt to connect the stubborn Dean's connectors causes multiple sparking. Then in rare cases, eventually the capacitor on the ESC fails to buffer the in-rush current and then...magic smoke. So if this is the case, carefully bend or file the male blades for a better fit, or move on to the better XT60 connectors: http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/s...s_GENUINE.html
--TIP 5: Never mount a buzzer alarm on, or point it toward the flight control board. It can cause poor flight controller board performance. Mount it at least 5 inches away if possible. Use shielded wire to the buzzer and do not run the wires over the accelerometer or gyros.
--TIP 6: Be sure to check the effects of magnetic flux if your multicopter is fitted with a compass or magnometer. This flux must be minimized for the best performance. Here is a good video test, note the end lipo test it compares two different lipos that give very different flux results: Magnetische Störungen - Teil 2 (6 min 15 sec) Note: The reason for the difference in the lipo results has been found to be that the one causing the greatest flux has the positive wire running from one end of the pack to the other end. The lipo pack with the least flux had the wires starting together and in parallel. Braiding the wiring, making sure there are no loops, and definitely testing and choosing or fixing any lipo that does this is critical for heading hold performance in our multicopters.
--TIP 7: Bullet connectors have been a frequent cause of motors stopping and crashes in multicopters. First look at the spring on the tip of the bullet connector. If you are able to spin it on the shaft, then these are known to eventually cause glitches and failures. A bit of solder on the tip to hold this spring will solve that problem. Second is the soldering of wires in the connectors. Make sure the solder is good and the wire is tight. If the wires in the connectors are the lacquer or magnet wires from the motors, then I highly recommend that you solder a small length of 20-22gauge multi-stranded silicone wire between the magnet wire and the built connector. The reason to do this is because when the magnet wires are soldered directly into the bullet connectors they will eventually break and cause a failure or partial failure or glitch. Check the connectors as part of your pre and post-flight checks for cracked solder and loose wires and any carbon build up. Use clear packing tape to hold the connectors together and for easy visual inspections. Note: For the ultimate multicopter reliability I recommend that you solder the wires directly and do not use bullet connectors at all.
--American Wire Gauge (AWG) Table: http://www.powerstream.com/Wire_Size.htm
--Extending brushless cables by Reverend: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=171111
--ESC wiring length facts by Whanderson: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...1&postcount=39
--Dleroi's wiring gauge calculator: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...6#post13738026 and http://www.stealth316.com/2-wire-resistance.htm
--Don Concinero's's ESC wiring harness: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...3#post14062823
--Dontenorio69's How to build a Multicopter Power Spider wiring video: power spider (13 min 59 sec)
--EnigmaSoar's wiring harness: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...3#post13874073
--Flyboy 001's Octo wiring harness: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...3#post14434193 and http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...7#post14440547
--FourPlay's wiring hub with fuses: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...7#post13701017
--Greasetattoo's wiring harness: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...6#post14548826
--G-Units wiring harness: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post13476531
--Hunter850's wiring harness: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...1#post13914141
--Jesolins ESC wiring harness with mini-blade fuses: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...g#post10672952
--MaximusRC's wiring harness: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...6#post13913756
--OMM's wiring advice: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showt...0#post13735990
--Power plug by Alll: http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showp...postcount=6201
--Stores: http://www.hansenhobbies.com/product...1inconnectors/ , http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/s..._26_Plugs.html

Many thanks to all those who posted the useful and detailed data that is linked in this thread to help the ever increasing number of multicopter flyer's!
Hope this helps!
Always be very careful, pay attention to details, do proper pre and post flight inspections and fly safe!
Cheers,
Jim
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Old Aug 18, 2009, 10:04 PM
UFO addict
jk3n0bi's Avatar
Texas
Joined Jan 2009
932 Posts
great thread! Maybe you could add a link to superdaves evader pro frame....
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Old Aug 18, 2009, 11:23 PM
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Phoenix, Arizona
Joined Jan 2009
1,421 Posts
Thanks, this is a great reference.

I agree with 41i3n777 I think it would be a good idea to have superdave's evader pro frame.
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Old Aug 19, 2009, 05:24 AM
Tri-Quad-Hexa-Octo-copters!!
United States, TX, San Antonio
Joined Feb 2007
14,583 Posts
Hi Gents,
I could not find a link to Dave's super Alien Saucer Evader frame in the Alien Air thread link that is included in the Mega links, so I will PM him for one and include it. Do you happen to have a link to his frames for sale?
Cheers,
Jim
Quote:
Originally Posted by 41i3n777
great thread! Maybe you could add a link to superdaves evader pro frame....
Quote:
Originally Posted by lazer155
Thanks, this is a great reference.
I agree with 41i3n777 I think it would be a good idea to have superdave's evader pro frame.
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Old Aug 19, 2009, 08:10 AM
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932 Posts
Yeah! Here it is

http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=995133
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Old Aug 19, 2009, 09:34 AM
Tri-Quad-Hexa-Octo-copters!!
United States, TX, San Antonio
Joined Feb 2007
14,583 Posts
Thanks! Done.
Cheers,
Jim
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Originally Posted by 41i3n777
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